Tag Archives: foods that shrink ovarian cysts

Ovaries Location Release Form

If you are considering trying a natural treatment, you may be wondering about eating foods that shrink ovarian cysts. Indeed, there is much evidence to say that eating a diet to reduce cysts on the ovaries must form an integral part of any set of protocols to naturally treat this condition.

Very often, many women feel that once they have received a diagnosis from their doctor that the cysts on their ovaries are harmless, many feel that they are more or less left to fend for themselves, with most doctors assuming a "watchful waiting" stance. For those who are suffering the often-painful and debilitating symptoms, ovarian cysts feel anything but harmless!

Conventional treatment can help with the symptoms and often ranges from birth controls to regulate ovulation, through to surgery to remove the cysts or even, in severe cases, the ovary itself. The real issue here is that conventional treatment cannot, and does not, remove the root causes and it is only by using a natural process to eliminate each and every possible cause of the condition and there is no doubt that by eating foods that shrink ovarian cysts, you are helping the process tremendously.

There are various contributory factors, and what we eat has a huge impact on our general health and, more importantly, the wrong kinds of foods can trigger the growth of cysts if other factors are present in the body. Controlling your diet can start the rebalanced process, helping to make the body into a neutralised environment where, quite simply, ovarian cysts cannot grow or thrive.

Foods That Shrink Ovarian Cysts

* Dark green leafy vegetables
* Small amounts of lean, organic meat
* Fruits (in moderation)
* Sprouting beans
* Non-starchy vegetables
* Beans
* Whole rice
* Nuts and seeds
* Garlic
* Filtered water

A diet based on the foods above will certainly help, but to be sure of success, dietary changes need to be combined with the other protocols, such as toxin elimination, cleansing protocols, stress management and an effective exercise routine.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Cyst on ovaries: signs, symptoms and treatment?
    What causes cyst on the ovaries? Can this be keeping me from getting pregnant? What testing do Dr.'s do to find these, if I do have cysts are they treatable to the point where I will be able to concieve sometime soon?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes to both Q and you need to visit your doctor as well.
      A cyst is a fluid filled sac, and can be located any where in the body.On the ovary different types of cyst can form most common is called a functional cyst, which often forms the natural menstrual cycle. Every female grow tiny cysts that hold the eggs, when egg is mature the sac bust open to release the egg, so it can travel threw fallopian tube for fertilization.Then the sac dissolves.
      A follicular cyst is where the sac doesn't open and many eggs continue to grow, this usually disappears within one to three months.The corpus lutetium cyst , this is when sac doesn't dissolve, the sac seals up after egg is released. Fluids builds up inside of this, this disappears in a few weeks.BUt can grow to almost 4 inches and may bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain.

      Endometriomas-Develope in women who have endometriosis tissue from lining of uterus, grows out side of uterus, tissue may attach to ovary and form a growth, there painful, during sex and menstruation.

      Cystadenomas- cysts from cells on outer surface of ovary filled with watery fluids or thick sticky gel, these can become large and cause pain.

      Dermoid Cyst- the cells in the ovary are able to make, hair, teeth and other growing tissues that become part of a forming cyst, these can become large and painful.

      Polycystic Ovaries- the egg matures, within follicels, or sacs but doesn't break to release egg, this repeats and grows inside ovary and cyst forms.

      Symptoms--
      Pressure/fullness,or pain in the abdomen
      Dull ache in lower back and thighs
      pain during sex
      weight gains
      painful menstrual cycles and abnormal bleeding
      nausea/vomiting
      brest tenderness
      If ANY of these see doctor asap-
      Pain with fever
      sudden severe abominal pains
      faintness,dizzness,weakness
      rapid breathing

      This is commonly found with routine pelvic exams, doctors can feel swelling of the cysts on the ovary if found an ultrasound with this the doctor can see, How the cyst is shaped, size and location and if its fluid-filled, solid, or mixed. He/she will also check to see if this is cancerious.
      Most treatments are to waite and see if goes away on its own and if not then--Surgery may be done. They can't be prvented! Most occur during child bearing years.Women in the age range of 50-70 are at higher risk of ovarian cysts and cancer.
      At any age if you think you may have any type cyst it's imporant to vist your doctor and let the doctor know, for your safty and well being and good health.

  2. QUESTION:
    Swollen left ovary - why?
    I just found out my left ovary is swollen (right one seems normal). I don't know how long it's been like this for. Should I be worried? What could it be? I am hoping it is nothing. I am too scared to find out what it could be .. if it could be bad news?

    thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      it's normal. you can get cysts on them and they generally go away sometime during the month. i used to get them all the time and went through exactly what you are describing. you can go get an ultrasound at the gynecologist if you are worried.

      What are ovarian cysts?
      A cyst is a fluid-filled sac, and can be located anywhere in the body. On the ovary, different types of cysts can form. The most common type of ovarian cyst is called a functional cyst, which often forms during the normal menstrual cycle. Each month, a woman's ovaries grow tiny cysts that hold the eggs. When an egg is mature, the sac breaks open to release the egg, so it can travel through the fallopian tube for fertilization. Then the sac dissolves. In one type of functional cyst, called a follicular cyst, the sac doesn't break open to release the egg and may continue to grow. This type of cyst usually disappears within one to three months. A corpus luteum cyst, another type of functional cyst, forms if the sac doesn t dissolve. Instead, the sac seals off after the egg is released. Fluid then builds up inside of it. This type of cyst usually goes away on its own after a few weeks. However, it can grow to almost four inches and may bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain. Clomid or Serophene, which are drugs used to induce ovulation, can raise the risk of getting this type of cyst. These cysts are almost never associated with cancer.

      There are also other types of cysts:

      Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who have endometriosis, when tissue from the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. The tissue may attach to the ovary and form a growth. These cysts can be painful during sexual intercourse and during menstruation.
      Cystadenomas. These cysts develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovary. They are often filled with a watery fluid or thick, sticky gel. They can become large and cause pain.
      Dermoid cysts. The cells in the ovary are able to make hair, teeth, and other growing tissues that become part of a forming ovarian cyst. These cysts can become large and cause pain.
      Polycystic ovaries. The eggs mature within the follicles, or sacs, but the sac doesn't break open to release the egg. The cycle repeats, follicles continue to grow inside the ovary, and cysts form. For more information about polycystic ovaries, refer to our FAQ on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
      What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?
      Many women have ovarian cysts without having any symptoms. Sometimes, though, a cyst will cause these problems:

      pressure, fullness, or pain in the abdomen
      dull ache in the lower back and thighs
      problems passing urine completely
      pain during sexual intercourse
      weight gain
      painful menstrual periods and abnormal bleeding
      nausea or vomiting
      breast tenderness
      If you have these symptoms, get help right away:

      pain with fever and vomiting
      sudden, severe abdominal pain
      faintness, dizziness, or weakness
      rapid breathing

      How are ovarian cysts found?
      Since ovarian cysts may not cause symptoms, they are usually found during a routine pelvic exam. During this exam, your doctor is able to feel the swelling of the cyst on your ovary. Once a cyst is found, the doctor may perform an ultrasound, which uses sound waves to create images of the body. With an ultrasound, the doctor can see how the cyst is shaped; its size and location; and whether it s fluid-filled, solid, or mixed. A pregnancy test is also done. Hormone levels (such as LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) may also be checked. Your doctor may want to do other tests as well.

      To find out if the cyst might be cancerous, your doctor may do a blood test to measure a substance in the blood called CA-125. The amount of this protein is higher if a woman has ovarian cancer. However, some ovarian cancers do not make enough CA-125 to be detected by the test. There are also non-cancerous diseases that increase the levels of CA-125, like uterine fibroids and endometriosis. These non-cancerous causes of increased CA-125 are more common in women under 35, while ovarian cancer is very uncommon in this age group. For this reason, the CA-125 test is recommended mostly for women over age 35, who are at high risk for the disease and have a cyst that is partially solid.

      How are cysts treated?
      Watchful waiting. The patient waits and gets re-examined in one to three months to see if the cyst has changed in size. This is a common treatment option for women who are in their childbearing years, have no symptoms, and have a fluid-filled cyst. It also might be an option for postmenopausal women.

      Surgery. If the cyst doesn t go away after several menstrual periods, has gotten larger, looks unusual on the ultrasound, causes pain, or you re postmenopausal, the doctor may want to remove it. There are two main surgical procedures:

      Laparoscopy if the cyst is small and looks benign on the ultrasound, your doctor may perform a laparoscopy. This procedure is done under general anesthesia. A very small incision is made above or below the navel, and a small instrument that acts like a telescope is inserted into the abdomen. If the cyst is small and looks benign, it can be removed.
      Laparotomy if the cyst is large and looks suspicious, the doctor may perform a procedure called a laparotomy. This procedure involves making bigger incisions in the stomach to remove the cyst. While you are under general anesthesia, the doctor is able to have the cyst tested to find out if the tissue is cancerous. If it is cancerous, the doctor may need to remove the ovary and other tissues that may be affected, like the uterus or lymph nodes.
      Birth control pills. If you frequently develop cysts, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to prevent you from ovulating. This will lower the chances of forming new cysts.

      Can ovarian cysts be prevented?
      Ovarian cysts cannot be prevented. Fortunately, the vast majority of cysts don t cause any symptoms, are not related to cancer, and go away on their own. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you notice any changes in your period, pain in the pelvic area, or any of the major symptoms listed above. A pelvic exam, possibly with an ultrasound, can help determine if a cyst is causing the problem. If a woman is not seeking pregnancy and develops functional cysts, frequently, future cysts may be prevented by taking oral contraceptives, Depo-Provera, or Norplant.

      When are women most likely to have ovarian cysts?
      Functional ovarian cysts usually occur during the childbearing years. Most often, cysts in women of this age group are not cancerous. Women who are past menopause (ages 50-70) with ovarian cysts have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. At any age, if you think you have a cyst, it s important to tell your doctor.

      For More Information...
      You can find out more about ovarian cysts by contacting the National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC) at 800-994-9662 or the following organizations:

      Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ), HHS
      Phone: (800) 358-9295
      Internet Address: http://www.ahrq.gov

      National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH, HHS
      Phone: (800) 370-2943
      Internet Address: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/womenshealth

      American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
      Internet Address: http://familydoctor.org

      American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)
      Phone: (205) 978-5000
      Internet Address: http://www.asrm.org

      InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination, Inc. (INCIID)
      Phone: (703) 379-9178
      Internet Address: http://www.inciid.org

  3. QUESTION:
    What causes my ovary cysts?
    Okay, so I'm 16. I have a problem with ovarian cysts.. When I was about 12 (I had not started my period yet) I had my first one. I woke up in the middle of the night, screaming in pain. It was pain I had never experienced before. My mom took me to the ER and they told my I had a cyst on my left ovary and it burst. The pain was gone by the time I left the ER (about an hour). They actually did a regular ultrasound on me and tested my urine to determine that it was in fact, a cyst that burst. They also told me that they are common in women and once I get a cyst on my ovary one time, I'm very likely to have it happen again...
    Now, back to present day...
    This morning, at about 2am, I woke up again screaming in pain. The same type of pain I had had 4 years ago - Unbearable. I kind of wanted to wait it out but my mom thought it could be something else so she insisted that I go to the ER again. I got there, and they tested my blood pressure, asked me some questions, and made me pee in a cup. By testing the urine, the determined it was a cyst again. Great. The doctor told me again, that is was common in women, but the pain level differs. For me, it was VERY intense. You can't even imagine. The doctor told me, that it was very strange that this had happened during this time because I am actually currently on my menstrual cycle this week and usually cysts occur the week you are ovulating. He also said that I needed to make an appointment with a gynecologist and they would probably schedule me a vaginal ultrasound.. Which I'm a little nervous about.
    So, I apologize for the details, but I'm curious as to know what causes these cysts? And why is my pain so unbearable? Thanks!!
    Might I add, that I'm very little for my age.. I'm 16, weighing 100lbs and 5'3.

    • ANSWER:
      There are a lot of different reasons for cysts, and it depends on the nature of the cyst, since there are many different types of cysts. It hurts so badly because it usually hurts really badly depending on the size and location of the cyst and the way your nerves are on your ovary. You might have a hormone imbalance such that the ordinary cysts that form every month on your ovaries don't go away as they should. It could be that you have endometriosis growth. It's good that you are seeing a gynecologist. They will be able to tell you more. A transvaginal ultrasound is a bit awkward but no big deal in the end. They put a probe in your vagina--the probe is a long tube. It has the ultrasound camera on it, and then the pictures appear on the monitor the doctor or technician looks at. The doc will most likely put you on birth control pills. The pills will suppress your ovaries so they stop producing cysts every month. So then you probably won't have any more cyst problems for awhile. What I mean when I say that ovaries produce cysts every month is that the eggs, as they mature, create cysts. It's the way it's supposed to be. After an egg is released and travels down your fallopian tubes into your uteurus, the place where the egg was released on the ovary becomes a corpus luteum cyst, which later in the month shrinks and goes away. Every month the ovaries start to mature many eggs, but only one is released, and then all the others shrink and go away too. But sometimes, they don't go away, and instead fill with fluid and persist, and then they might burst, as you have felt. Cysts are quite common, unfortunately. When you feel pain like what you had this morning, you ALWAYS have to go to the ER.

  4. QUESTION:
    They took a sonnogram today and said they saw a sack, with fluid biuld up. Negative urine test. What is it?
    I went to the obgyn today telling her about everyone's advice on luteal phase defect and she said that we need to rule out any blockages ect. oK so they did a urine test, came up neg. then gave me a uterine sonnogram, they said they saw what looked like begining of a pregnancy (a sack) my doc said she doubts it is pregnancy cause i had my period this month and for the sack to start showing with a neg preg test was not likely to happen at all. So does anyone have any idea what it could be? i wish they would call me tomorrow and tell me i am preg, but i have learned by now not to get my hopes up. Any advice would help. Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      A Corpus Lutium Cyst. It sometimes forms in the location where the egg was released from the ovary.

  5. QUESTION:
    Left Ovary cannot be seen in an ultra sound?
    Why could that be?
    A number of fibroids exist in my mothers uterus and possibly a pulp.
    One of the fibroids exist in the submocosal location? Im not enitrely sure what this means but I believe its growth is causing the heavy menstrual bleeding of my mother and it does need to be operated on, cant anyone help me?

    • ANSWER:
      Fibroids are NOT cancer. I've had many fibroids resulting from a disease called endometriosis,. If your mother has massive fibroids, they can and will cause a lot of pain. They don't belong there. This is what happens. I hope her Dr is going to do something about it. At first, I refused because I was only 35. That didn't work. My endometriosis got so bad, I passed out from hemorrhage. Then I woke up in the hospital with a complete hysterectomy because the Dr told my husband he should sign the release form since I was unable. My husband did because he thought I was going to die. No, I knew differently. I only wish the Dr hadn't gone so drastically. Oh well, So don't worry, fibroids are never cancer, it's only thick excessive tissue growth. And yes, it hurts. I hope your mom feels better. Make sure she gets another opinion, That is so very important.

  6. QUESTION:
    what guides a sperm to the eggs location? (In humans)?
    Do they even know the location of the egg, or do they just swim aimlessly till they find something to enter?
    egg's***

    • ANSWER:
      Human fertilization occurs when the male reproductive cell, sperm, meets the female reproductive cell, an egg. The sperm of a male are produced inside the testes, and stored in the epidydymis. Ejaculation of sperm occurs through the head of the penis during during sexual intercourse, and millions of microscopic sperm are released into the uterus of a woman by way of her vaginal opening.

      Ovulation is the release of a single female egg is released once a month by one of two ovaries. The egg, known as a oocyte, waits in one of the fallopian tubes of the female. Female hormones send signals to direct the sperm toward the egg cell. Fertilization occurs inside the fallopian tube when a single sperm cell penetrates the egg wall. The fertilized egg then falls down into the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, where the growth of the newly fertilized egg occurs.

      The female's sexual hormone progesterone sends signals to the sperm swimming through the uterus and up the fallopian tube. To ensure fertilization, the oocyte is surrounded by cumulus cells that release the progesterone hormone. Progesterone serves as a chemical attractant to the male sperm. A calcium ion channel release is the active control of progesterone in women, and a sperm-specific identifier called the CatSper controls the swimming behavior of the sperm cells.

      The female egg is in complete control of the direction in which the sperm travel. Progesterone not only attracts the sperm, but creates a hyperactivation of the sperm tails directing them to the exact location of the unfertilized egg. The tails of the sperm are directly affected by these calcium ion channels. The sperm alters its swimming effect based upon the signals released by the egg. Progesterone controls the entire pathway which the sperm take through alteration of the beating patterns of sperm tails.

      More specifically, progesterone acts directly on what are known as the CatSper calcium channels. These are ion channels are found only in the tail of a sperm cell. The ion channels form pore proteins in the cell membrane, and acts as a "floodgate" for the release of ions. The female's progesterone opens its sperm-specific CatSper channel allow calcium ions to flow into the tails of sperm redirecting their swimming pattern directly to the egg. The build-up of the calcium in sperm results in the egg having complete control.

      A simplified way of examining this phenomenon is to think of the female egg as sending a "broadcast transmission" of calcium to the sperm. When the sperm receive the transmission, their tails become filled with calcium. The sperm then follow that broadcast transmission that is known as a a CatSper channel all the way to the egg cell that is awaiting fertilization. One male sperm will penetrate the female egg resulting in fertilization.

  7. QUESTION:
    What is secondary oocyte and polar body?
    I need their definitions, functions, locations, and why they exist that way.

    • ANSWER:
      here's a diagram depicting the process of oogenesis (egg-production)
      this process is halted at the secondary oocyte stage until it is fertilized by sperm, at which point it'll divide once more, resulting in a fertilized ovum and a polar body. The polar bodies are different in the ovum in that they have little cytoplasm, since all of it needs to go to one in order for a zygote to be produced. At this point all are in the ovary...definitions:

      secondary oocyte
      n.
      An oocyte in which the first meiotic division is completed. The second meiotic division usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs.

      polar body
      n.
      Either of two small cells formed by the ovum during its maturation, the first usually released just before ovulation and the second not until after the ovum has been discharged from the ovary and penetrated by a sperm cell.

  8. QUESTION:
    info on ovarian cysts?

    • ANSWER:
      **What are ovarian cysts?
      A cyst is a fluid-filled sac. They can form anywhere in the body. Ovarian cysts (sists) form in or on the ovaries. The most common type of ovarian cyst is a functional cyst.

      Functional cysts often form during the menstrual cycle. The two types are:
      --Follicle cysts. These cysts form when the sac doesn't break open to release the egg. Then the sac keeps growing. This type of cyst most often goes away in 1 to 3 months.
      --Corpus luteum cysts. These cysts form if the sac doesn't dissolve. Instead, the sac seals off after the egg is released. Then fluid builds up inside. Most of these cysts go away after a few weeks. They can grow to almost 4 inches. They may bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain. They are rarely cancerous. Some drugs used to cause ovulation, such as Clomid or Serophene , can raise the risk of getting these cysts.

      Other types of ovarian cysts are:
      --Endometriomas (EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-muhs). These cysts form in women who have endometriosis (EN-doh-MEE-tree-OH-suhss). This problem occurs when tissue that looks and acts like the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. The tissue may attach to the ovary and form a growth. These cysts can be painful during sex and during your period.
      --Cystadenomas (siss-tahd-uh-NOH-muhs). These cysts form from cells on the outer surface of the ovary. They are often filled with a watery fluid or thick, sticky gel. They can become large and cause pain.
      --Dermoid (DUR-moid) cysts. These cysts contain many types of cells. They may be filled with hair, teeth, and other tissues that become part of the cyst. They can become large and cause pain.
      Polycystic (pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovaries. These cysts are caused when eggs mature within the sacs but are not released. The cycle then repeats. The sacs continue to grow and many cysts form. For more information about polycystic ovaries, refer to our FAQ about Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

      **What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?
      Many ovarian cysts don't cause symptoms. Others can cause:

      pressure, swelling, or pain in the abdomen
      pelvic pain
      dull ache in the lower back and thighs
      problems passing urine completely
      pain during sex
      weight gain
      pain during your period
      abnormal bleeding
      nausea or vomiting
      breast tenderness
      If you have these symptoms, get help right away:

      pain with fever and vomiting
      sudden, severe abdominal pain
      faintness, dizziness, or weakness
      rapid breathing

      **How are ovarian cysts found?
      Doctors most often find ovarian cysts during routine pelvic exams. The doctor may feel the swelling of a cyst on the ovary. Once a cyst is found, tests are done to help plan treatment. Tests include:

      --An ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to create images of the body. With an ultrasound, the doctor can see the cyst's:
      shape
      size
      location
      mass if it is fluid-filled, solid, or mixed
      --A pregnancy test. This test may be given to rule out pregnancy.
      --Hormone level tests. Hormone levels may be checked to see if there are hormone-related problems.
      --A blood test. This test is done to find out if the cyst may be cancerous. The test measures a substance in the blood called cancer-antigen 125 (CA-125). The amount of CA-125 is higher with ovarian cancer. But some ovarian cancers don't make enough CA-125 to be detected by the test. Some noncancerous diseases also raise CA-125 levels. Those diseases include uterine fibroids (YOO-tur-ihn FEYE-broidz) and endometriosis. Noncancerous causes of higher CA-125 are more common in women younger than 35. Ovarian cancer is very rare in this age group. The CA-125 test is most often given to women who:
      are older than 35
      are at high risk for ovarian cancer
      have a cyst that is partly solid

      **How are cysts treated?
      Watchful waiting. If you have a cyst, you may be told to wait and have a second exam in 1 to 3 months. Your doctor will check to see if the cyst has changed in size. This is a common treatment option for women who:

      are in their childbearing years
      have no symptoms
      have a fluid-filled cyst
      It may be an option for postmenopausal women.

      Surgery. Your doctor may want to remove the cyst if you are postmenopausal, or if it:

      doesn't go away after several menstrual cycles
      gets larger
      looks odd on the ultrasound
      causes pain
      The two main surgeries are:

      --Laparoscopy (lap-uh-ROSS-kuh-pee) done if the cyst is small and looks benign (noncancerous) on the ultrasound. While you are under general anesthesia, a very small cut is made above or below your navel. A small instrument that acts like a telescope is put into your abdomen. Then your doctor can remove the cyst.
      --Laparotomy (lap-uh-ROT-uh-mee) done if the cyst is large and may be cancerous. While you are under general anesthesia, larger incisions are made in the stomach to remove the cyst. The cyst is then tested for cancer. If it is cancerous, the doctor may need to take out the ovary and other tissues, like

  9. QUESTION:
    Ovarian Cysts?
    Went to the doctor the other day as my husband and I are ttc without any luck. I explained to her that I had had some weird stomach cramps and my cycle was off. She sent me for an ultra sound which found that i have cysts around my ovaries. She said it was nothing to panic about but that she wanted to see me early next week. Does anyone know anything about them and will they affect me ttc in the future?
    ttc=trying to conceive

    • ANSWER:
      I HAVE HAD COUNTLESS CYSTS ON MY OVARIES. MOST GO AWAY AND SOME HAS TO BE TAKEN OFF BY SURGERY WHICH I HAVE HAD DONE. I STILL THOUGH GOT PREGNANT TWICE. I HAVE A 4 YEAR OLD THEN LAST YEAR HAD A MISCARRIAGE.
      YOU CAN STILL GET PREGNANT EVEN IF YOU HAVE CYSTS ON YOUR OVARIES. I ALSO HAD ENDOMETRIOSIS AND CONCEIVED.

      What are ovarian cysts?
      A cyst is a fluid-filled sac, and can be located anywhere in the body. On the ovary, different types of cysts can form. The most common type of ovarian cyst is called a functional cyst, which often forms during the normal menstrual cycle. Each month, a woman's ovaries grow tiny cysts that hold the eggs. When an egg is mature, the sac breaks open to release the egg, so it can travel through the fallopian tube for fertilization. Then the sac dissolves. In one type of functional cyst, called a follicular cyst, the sac doesn't break open to release the egg and may continue to grow. This type of cyst usually disappears within one to three months. A corpus luteum cyst, another type of functional cyst, forms if the sac doesn t dissolve. Instead, the sac seals off after the egg is released. Fluid then builds up inside of it. This type of cyst usually goes away on its own after a few weeks. However, it can grow to almost four inches and may bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain. Clomid or Serophene, which are drugs used to induce ovulation, can raise the risk of getting this type of cyst. These cysts are almost never associated with cancer.

      There are also other types of cysts:

      Endometriomas. These cysts develop in women who have endometriosis, when tissue from the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. The tissue may attach to the ovary and form a growth. These cysts can be painful during sexual intercourse and during menstruation.
      Cystadenomas. These cysts develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovary. They are often filled with a watery fluid or thick, sticky gel. They can become large and cause pain.
      Dermoid cysts. The cells in the ovary are able to make hair, teeth, and other growing tissues that become part of a forming ovarian cyst. These cysts can become large and cause pain.
      Polycystic ovaries. The eggs mature within the follicles, or sacs, but the sac doesn't break open to release the egg. The cycle repeats, follicles continue to grow inside the ovary, and cysts form. For more information about polycystic ovaries, refer to our FAQ on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
      What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?
      Many women have ovarian cysts without having any symptoms. Sometimes, though, a cyst will cause these problems:

      pressure, fullness, or pain in the abdomen
      dull ache in the lower back and thighs
      problems passing urine completely
      pain during sexual intercourse
      weight gain
      painful menstrual periods and abnormal bleeding
      nausea or vomiting
      breast tenderness
      If you have these symptoms, get help right away:

      pain with fever and vomiting
      sudden, severe abdominal pain
      faintness, dizziness, or weakness
      rapid breathing

      How are ovarian cysts found?
      Since ovarian cysts may not cause symptoms, they are usually found during a routine pelvic exam. During this exam, your doctor is able to feel the swelling of the cyst on your ovary. Once a cyst is found, the doctor may perform an ultrasound, which uses sound waves to create images of the body. With an ultrasound, the doctor can see how the cyst is shaped; its size and location; and whether it s fluid-filled, solid, or mixed. A pregnancy test is also done. Hormone levels (such as LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) may also be checked. Your doctor may want to do other tests as well.

      To find out if the cyst might be cancerous, your doctor may do a blood test to measure a substance in the blood called CA-125. The amount of this protein is higher if a woman has ovarian cancer. However, some ovarian cancers do not make enough CA-125 to be detected by the test. There are also non-cancerous diseases that increase the levels of CA-125, like uterine fibroids and endometriosis. These non-cancerous causes of increased CA-125 are more common in women under 35, while ovarian cancer is very uncommon in this age group. For this reason, the CA-125 test is recommended mostly for women over age 35, who are at high risk for the disease and have a cyst that is partially solid.

      How are cysts treated?
      Watchful waiting. The patient waits and gets re-examined in one to three months to see if the cyst has changed in size. This is a common treatment option for women who are in their childbearing years, have no symptoms, and have a fluid-filled cyst. It also might be an option for postmenopausal women.

      Surgery. If the cyst doesn t go away after several menstrual periods, has gotten larger, looks unusual on the ultrasound, causes pain, or you re postmenopausal, the doctor may want to remove it. There are two main surgical procedures:

      Laparoscopy if the cyst is small and looks benign on the ultrasound, your doctor may perform a laparoscopy. This procedure is done under general anesthesia. A very small incision is made above or below the navel, and a small instrument that acts like a telescope is inserted into the abdomen. If the cyst is small and looks benign, it can be removed.
      Laparotomy if the cyst is large and looks suspicious, the doctor may perform a procedure called a laparotomy. This procedure involves making bigger incisions in the stomach to remove the cyst. While you are under general anesthesia, the doctor is able to have the cyst tested to find out if the tissue is cancerous. If it is cancerous, the doctor may need to remove the ovary and other tissues that may be affected, like the uterus or lymph nodes.
      Birth control pills. If you frequently develop cysts, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to prevent you from ovulating. This will lower the chances of forming new cysts.

      Can ovarian cysts be prevented?
      Ovarian cysts cannot be prevented. Fortunately, the vast majority of cysts don t cause any symptoms, are not related to cancer, and go away on their own. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you notice any changes in your period, pain in the pelvic area, or any of the major symptoms listed above. A pelvic exam, possibly with an ultrasound, can help determine if a cyst is causing the problem. If a woman is not seeking pregnancy and develops functional cysts, frequently, future cysts may be prevented by taking oral contraceptives, Depo-Provera, or Norplant.

      When are women most likely to have ovarian cysts?
      Functional ovarian cysts usually occur during the childbearing years. Most often, cysts in women of this age group are not cancerous. Women who are past menopause (ages 50-70) with ovarian cysts have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. At any age, if you think you have a cyst, it s important to tell your doctor.

      GOOD LUCK

  10. QUESTION:
    Ovarian Cancer.............?
    I'm so scared I have ovarian cancer.

    I know I at least have a cyst ..I have a scan on tuesday but my doctor said it is probably a cyst.

    My symptoms are :

    -Extreme pain in the location of left ovary

    -Pain in lower back

    -Yesterday I had slight spotting (brown blood .. only slight)

    -Nerve pain down my left leg and my left arm

    Possible weight gain ..Im only 120 pounds but I have put on 10pounds in 6mths and I do not overeat.

    I'm sitting here awake so scared. When i look up my symptoms they all point towards ovarian cancer. I'm 22 years old.

    I know a girl I went to school with who got ovarian cancer which is making me more anxious. Do i have the symptoms of it?

    Any advice helpful

    • ANSWER:
      Ovarian cysts may occur during the process in which an egg is released from the ovary (ovulation). During the days before ovulation, a follicle grows. But when ovulation is supposed to occur, the follicle fails to break open and release an egg, as it is supposed to do. Instead, the fluid stays in the follicle and forms a cyst.
      Ovarian cysts are somewhat common, and are more common during a woman's childbearing years (from puberty to menopause). Ovarian cysts are rare after menopause.
      No known risk factors have been found.
      Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors (including ovarian cancer) or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such as polycystic ovary disease.
      By the time ovarian cancer is diagnosed, it has usually spread beyond the ovaries. There are often no symptoms until late in the disease process. More than half of women who get ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stages of the disease. As with most cancers, the earlier the diagnosis is made, the better the chance for survival.

  11. QUESTION:
    Nausea and diarrhea when ovulating?
    Hey there. So, for the last couple of months during the time I'm ovulating, I've been experiencing some diarrhea and nausea, and I'm just wondering if the fact I'm ovulating could be the cause? I get the exact same symptoms (usually a little worse) when I'm on my period, which is why I'm thinking this. I also urinate more frequently.
    I should probably mention that I have IBS-A, and I always put it down to a typical flare-up, but I started making a diary of my symptoms and what foods I was eating, etc, and none of it adds up EXCEPT for the fact that it always happens during ovulation. The symptoms always last 2-3 days, and I don't usually feel sick at any other time until I am due on my period (unless I have an IBS flare-up).

    Does anybody else experience nausea and a little diarrhea during ovulation?

    Thanks in advance :)
    I don't have any sort of pain, just nausea and a little diarrhea.

    • ANSWER:
      The release of a single, mature egg from the ovary is known as ovulation. During the course of a monthly cycle, the largest of the of the eggs is released into the fallopian tube. Once released, the egg can then be fertilized over the next day or so before it begins to disintegrate. If the egg should be fertilized and successfully implants, a woman becomes pregnant. If the egg is not fertilized, it is passed from the woman s body during menstrual bleeding. This occurs about two weeks after ovulation. For most women, ovulation occurs once a month until menopause, apart from the time that she is pregnant or breastfeeding.
      Many women, around twenty percent, experience some form of pain or another during ovulation. This pain often resembles a cramping feeling. Pain that is caused by ovulation typically:
      - occurs in the lower abdomen
      - occurs about two weeks before the menstrual period is due
      - Is felt only on one side or the other, depending on which ovary released the egg
      - Lasts for anywhere from a few minutes to 48 hours.
      Researchers have some theories about the causes of ovulation pain. This pain may be caused by an emerging follicle, or it may be caused by a ruptured follicle. In some cases, it could be symptomatic of another medical condition, such as:
      - Endometriosis. This occurs when the lining of the womb (endometrium) grows in other locations, such as the bowel. Other symptoms of endometriosis can include painful periods and painful sex.
      - Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. This is inflammation that immediately follows an infection.
      - Salpingitis. This is when the fallopian tubes become inflamed following an infection.
      - Ovarian cysts. These are abnormal pockets of fluid that develop on the ovaries.
      - Appendicitis. Some women can confuse inflammation of the appendix with ovulation pain. This sort of pain will occur only on the right side of the abdomen, and will likely be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
      - Other gastrointestinal difficulties, such as a perforated ulcer, gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel disease.
      If you have regular ovulation pain, you should be able to speak to your health care provider. She can help you determine whether the pain is harmless, or whether it is indicative of another problem. She may use a variety of methods, including exams, blood tests, cultures, ultrasounds, or exploratory surgery to diagnose the problem.

  12. QUESTION:
    Is Your Birthcontrol Still Effective While You Are On Your Period?
    I was wondering...If you have unprotected sex while you are on your period BUT on birthcontrol...are you still protected from pregnancy???

    Thanks for the answers in advance!
    Yes...is it still effective, EVEN when you have you period.

    • ANSWER:
      If you are talking about the pill, which I assume you are, you cannot get pregnant while on any form of birth control. The way it works is when you have intercourse and the guy ejaculates about a million (true, not kidding) sperm enter the vagina. They have to swim to the top, through the cervix, through the uterus to the top then out to one of two fallopian tubes. Meanwhile, during ovulation which occurs on approximately day 14 of your cycle, an egg is released from the ovary and goes into a falopian tube. This is the location where the sperm fertilizes the egg. It is then the first cell of a human being called a zygote. It moves into the uterus and implants itself into the rich lining where it will stay and grow for 9 months. When you have your period, it means your egg for that month has left the ovary, gone through the falopian tube and the uterus and, along with the rich lining of the uterus that has been getting ready to nourish a baby, out the vagina. So since the egg is no longer in the falopian tube, it can't get fertilized so you can't get pregnant.

  13. QUESTION:
    reproductive system case study?
    Case Study (required--answer all questions)
    A 26-year-old female complained of severe, dull, aching pain, and cramping in the lower abdomen. There were no other physical findings. A laparoscopy revealed the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue on the uterine wall and ovaries. Danazol (a synthetic androgen and inhibitor of gonadotropins), 600 mg/day, was prescribed for up to nine months to inhibit ovulation, suppress the growth of the abnormal endometrial tissue, and achieve appreciable symptomatic relief, with a 30% possibility of conception after withdrawal of the therapy.
    Questions
    1a. What is this condition called?
    1b. What causes it?
    2. What is ectopic endometrial tissue?
    3. What is the rationale for using danazol, a gonadotropin inhibitor?
    4. Why do you think oral contraceptives could also be used as a treatment?

    • ANSWER:
      1a) Endometriosis.
      1b) *Regurgitation of the endometrium through the fallopian tubes into the peritoneum during menses
      *Implantation of pieces of endometrium during surgery
      *Metaplasia of tissue at different sites into endometrial tissue.Since the viscera and muscles of the endometrium are formed from the same type of tissue,each cell has the potential of converting itself into endometrium-like tissue.This convertion is called metaplasia.What stimulates the convertion is not exactly known.
      *Spread via the blood stream & lymphatics.
      2. Presence of pieces of endometrium outside it's normal location,which will act like endometrium during each menstrual cycle and bleed but without an outlet for blood.Collection of this blood leads to inflammation and engorgement of the pelvic area and symptoms as in this case study.
      3. The main factors that have to be taken into consideration before treatment are -- Patient's desire for future pregnancies,Age of the patient,and Severity of disease.The options are a)Hormonal approach,Surgery or Danazol.The rational for using Danazol is that it ia a synthetic hormone that is non estrogenic,non progestogenic and weakly androgenic.It decreases the release of ganodatropins (FSH / LH) from the pituitary,and hence the release of estrogens from the ovaries.It blocks the estrogen receptors in the target tissues like endometrium and breast.
      4.It is a known fact that pregnancy prevents endometriosis.During pregnancy the lady has 1)high progesterone levels 2)anovulation.If one can achieve these results artificially,endometriosis might be relieved.Hence the mainstay of hormonal therapy is combined oral contraceptives.It will induce anovulation and a state of pseudo-pregnancy.This leads to arrest and repression of the endometriosis.If the patient is young and does not desire pregnancy,she can be given clinical therapy with oral contraceptives.Only in this case the cycle may even be of 3-4 monthsThis will lead to heavy withdrawl bleeding only 3-4 times a yearHigh dose oral contraceptives are generally chosen.Whenever these patients desire pregnancy,the pills are discontinued.Pregnancy itself will prevent endometriosis.However,they have their own side effects.

  14. QUESTION:
    Merry Christmas/Hannuka/Yule! So you're an alien biologist, describing the human mating rituals..?
    What does your report say?

    Thank you and goodnight! xD
    LOL No my darling cyber-husband BOSS, I want the clinical detached description of human mating rituals. Like when they describe birds doing a dance and then the female offers... Well ya know! For entertainment reasons =)
    Night !

    • ANSWER:
      Dear Dr. Tklonguhyd:

      We have finally done the last touch-ups on our report of the small peoples that occupy the blue planet of Earth. As you know, my team has been overseeing the mating rituals and patterns of the peoples. I know this information is to reach you in our final report on the 51st, by I couldn't help myself.

      It seems that there is a mere two genders and only one set of genitals on the peoples. The two genders, which are called "male" and "female", typically prefer the opposite gender due to the fact that this is the only way of natural procreation, though we have heard news of two females producing a child. A small percentage of the peoples prefer the same gender, roughly 1 to 5 % of the population prefers the same sex.

      The male's reproduction organ is quite large in size in proportion to their bodies and is of the "protruding" variety between the two transporters of the leg variety. It is slightly cylindrical with an odd dome-ish top and no spiral to it's shape, and has two spherical testicles behind the penis which produce the sperm to impregnate the female.

      The female's sex organ is of the "concave" variety in a similiar location of the body. The vagina leads back to a uetrerus and two ovaries, where the eggs are stored and the baby will form with a nine-month gestation period. An egg/eggs are released about once every 29 to 31 earth days.

      Like most every creature with a complex nervous ssytem controller, they do have distinctive personalities and do vary on the mating ritual. For the most part, though, the male will have to woo the female in some way until she has decided he is a good partner to mate with. Some females will require an expensive gift before her deciscion while others only need a compliment on their body, and still yet, others will require an official commitment to the male and the male to her before she will mate with him as according to the laws of her religion.

      It's very curious indeed and I hope to hear back from you soon on your assesment of this report.

      Signed,

      Peirhrov Mklowskvii

  15. QUESTION:
    Can anyone describe sexual reproduction 'as the joining of two cells'?
    It'd be a great help if you could :D
    thanks, ox.

    • ANSWER:
      The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle. The first fossilized evidence of sexually reproducing organisms is from eukaryotes of the Stenian period, about 1.2 to 1 billion years ago.[1] Sexual reproduction is the primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of macroscopic organisms,

      ABOUT HUMANITY......
      The male reproductive system contains two main divisions: the penis, and the testicles, the latter of which is where sperm are produced.

      The female reproductive system likewise contains two main divisions: the vagina and uterus, which act as the receptacle for the sperm, and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova. All of these parts are always internal. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus.

      If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrate and merge with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal, which is the vagina.

      The ova, which are the female sex cells, are much larger than the sperm and are normally formed with in the ovaries of the fetus before its birth. They are mostly fixed in location with in the ovary until their transit to the uterus, and contain nutrients for the later zygote and embryo. Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent down the Fallopian tube. If not fertilized, this egg is flushed out of the system through menstruation in humans and other great apes and reabsorbed in other mammals in the estrus cycle

      Once the fetus is sufficiently developed, chemical signals start the process of birth, which begins with contractions of the uterus and the dilation of the cervix. The fetus then descends to the cervix, where it is pushed out into the vagina, and eventually out of the female.

  16. QUESTION:
    Can someone explain the alteration of generations in plants?
    We have to learn about it in Ap Biology and I can't seem to grasp the concept. So far I understand that there are two types of the same plant; each alternating with each other. One type reproduces sexually somehow, and the other type reproduces asexually with spores. The offspring of the asexual produces the sexual and vice versa. I would appreciate it if someone could further explain this to me. Does this occur with all types of plants? Also, do the sexual and asexual plants look and function differently?
    Actually, when I look at my book I find myself even more confused about there being different stuctures of the same plant.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes all plants have an alternation of generations but the different classes of plants vary how long they remain in each portion of the life cycle.
      Sporophytes (diploid/2n) meiosis => spores (haploid/n)
      Spores grow into gametophytes (still n)
      Gametophytes mitosis => gametes (n)
      Gametes merge into a zygote (2n)
      Zygotes grow into sporophytes.

      Only in mossy Bryophytes is the gametophyte dominant. Most of the plants life is spent as a haploid organism. One set of chromosomes is enough for most metabolic processes; two copies ensures a noncorrupted backup copy of the genome. Two copies also allows recombination in sexual reproduction. The two merged gametes form a small dependent sporophyte that lasts just long enough to go through meiosis & release spores. This gets the plant back to being the mossy gametophyte.

      In ferns gymnosperm & angiosperm the sporophyte is dominant and the gametophyte is increasingly miniaturized.

      Spores are the way ferns and moss spread longer distances. Being tied to water, as they are with flagellated gametes, makes self-fertilization more common with only spores for dispersal so genetic recombination is at a lower rate.

      In ferns there is a shift towards the sporophyte being the dominant life stage. The small , heart-shaped, independent gametophyte (prothallus) grows from the spore & anchors with rhizoids growing beneath. The male gametophyte produces gametes that swim, in water, to a female gamete (usually part of the same thallus). The gametes meet & merge to be a sporophyte zygote. The sporophyte remains attached to the gametophyte until it becomes strong enough to be independent. Then the gametophyte degenerates leaving the independent sporophyte we know as a fern. Ferns release spores (n) from the surus beneath the frond. Spores drift on air currents to new locations. Good spread for offspring but little cross-fertilization results because gametophytes must still be very close & wet to cross-fertilize. Ferns are typically monoecious with both male and female sex organs on the same gametophytes.

      Gymnosperm and angiosperm plants keep the spore until it matures as the entire male gametophyte or pollen. This groups them as Spermatophytes. Essentially the gametophyte generation is reduced to the brief period of reproduction. Male cones or male flower parts release the miniature gametophyte as the grain of pollen. Female cones or flower parts grow the female gametophyte in an ovule. In cones the ovule is sheltered by the cone's scale but is not enclosed. In flowers the ovule is inside an ovary.
      Spermatophytes have no flagellated gametes to restrict these plants to water for reproduction. With the male gametophyte arriving as pollen the sperm nuclei are delivered to the egg nuclei to form a zygote. This allows much more recombination of genetic material with the mobility of pollen. Then the seed is the juvenile sporophyte that is mobile & capable of dispersal.
      Sporophytes (diploid/2n) meiosis => spores (haploid/n)
      Spores grow into pollen or ovules (still n)
      Gametophytes mitosis => gametes (n) once pollen meets ovule
      Gametes merge into a zygote (2n) seed
      Zygotes grow into sporophytes.

  17. QUESTION:
    What explains the alternation of generations in plants?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes all plants have an alternation of generations but the different classes of plants vary how long they remain in each portion of the life cycle.
      Sporophytes (diploid/2n) meiosis => spores (haploid/n)
      Spores grow into gametophytes (still n)
      Gametophytes mitosis => gametes (n)
      Gametes merge into a zygote (2n)
      Zygotes grow into sporophytes.

      Only in mossy Bryophytes is the gametophyte dominant. Most of the plants life is spent as a haploid organism. One set of chromosomes is enough for most metabolic processes; two copies ensures a noncorrupted backup copy of the genome. Two copies also allows recombination in sexual reproduction. The two merged gametes form a small dependent sporophyte that lasts just long enough to go through meiosis & release spores. This gets the plant back to being the mossy gametophyte.

      In ferns gymnosperm & angiosperm the sporophyte is dominant and the gametophyte is increasingly miniaturized.

      Spores are the way ferns and moss spread longer distances. Being tied to water, as they are with flagellated gametes, makes self-fertilization more common with only spores for dispersal so genetic recombination is at a lower rate.

      In ferns there is a shift towards the sporophyte being the dominant life stage. The small , heart-shaped, independent gametophyte (prothallus) grows from the spore & anchors with rhizoids growing beneath. The male gametophyte produces gametes that swim, in water, to a female gamete (usually part of the same thallus). The gametes meet & merge to be a sporophyte zygote. The sporophyte remains attached to the gametophyte until it becomes strong enough to be independent. Then the gametophyte degenerates leaving the independent sporophyte we know as a fern. Ferns release spores (n) from the surus beneath the frond. Spores drift on air currents to new locations. Good spread for offspring but little cross-fertilization results because gametophytes must still be very close & wet to cross-fertilize. Ferns are typically monoecious with both male and female sex organs on the same gametophytes.

      Gymnosperm and angiosperm plants keep the spore until it matures as the entire male gametophyte or pollen. This groups them as Spermatophytes. Essentially the gametophyte generation is reduced to the brief period of reproduction. Male cones or male flower parts release the miniature gametophyte as the grain of pollen. Female cones or flower parts grow the female gametophyte in an ovule. In cones the ovule is sheltered by the cone's scale but is not enclosed. In flowers the ovule is inside an ovary.
      Spermatophytes have no flagellated gametes to restrict these plants to water for reproduction. With the male gametophyte arriving as pollen the sperm nuclei are delivered to the egg nuclei to form a zygote. This allows much more recombination of genetic material with the mobility of pollen. Then the seed is the juvenile sporophyte that is mobile & capable of dispersal.
      Sporophytes (diploid/2n) meiosis => spores (haploid/n)
      Spores grow into pollen or ovules (still n)
      Gametophytes mitosis => gametes (n) once pollen meets ovule
      Gametes merge into a zygote (2n) seed
      Zygotes grow into sporophytes. :) :)

  18. QUESTION:
    does ovulation hurt?
    i know for a fact(my monthly cycles) that this is my fertile week and that im ovulating and will be for the next couple of days. my question is should my lower stomach be hurting? for the last couple of days its felt like menstral cramps then a couple of times it was a little jab of pain but mostly cramp like

    are these signs of ovulation or something else? and b4 anyone asks yes me and my husband have been having sex using the pull out method and we are not NOT trying to get pregnant and we arent trying to get pregnant. we're just going with the flow for a couple of months to see whatll happenand i know that its not an acceptable form of BC.lol.
    also we had sex 7, 5 and 1 day ago using that method

    • ANSWER:
      ~ Ovulation Pain~

      Ovulation is a phase of the female menstrual cycle, which involves the release of an egg (ovum) from one of the ovaries. For most women, ovulation occurs about once every month until menopause, apart from episodes of pregnancy and breastfeeding.

      About one in five women experience pain and discomfort during ovulation. The duration of the pain varies from one woman to the next, but ranges from a few minutes to 48 hours. In most cases, ovulation pain doesn t mean that anything is wrong. However, severe pain may sometimes be symptomatic of gynaecological conditions including endometriosis. See your doctor if your ovulation pain lasts longer than three days or is associated with other unusual menstrual symptoms, such as heavy bleeding. Ovulation pain is also known as mid-cycle pain and mittelschmerz (German for middle pain ).

      Symptoms
      The symptoms of ovulation pain can include:

      Pain in the lower abdomen, just inside the hip bone.
      The pain typically occurs about two weeks before the menstrual period is due.
      The pain is felt on the right or left side, depending on which ovary is releasing an egg.
      The pain may switch from one side to the other from one cycle to the next, or remain on one side for a few cycles.
      The pain sensation varies between individuals - for example, it could feel like uncomfortable pressure, twinges, sharp pains or cramps.
      The duration of pain ranges anywhere from minutes to 48 hours.
      Theories on possible causes
      The exact cause of ovulation pain is not clear, but theories include:
      Emerging follicle - hormones prompt the ovaries to produce around 20 follicles. Each follicle contains an immature egg (ovum) but only one follicle usually survives to maturity. It is supposed that ovulation pain is caused by the expanding follicle stretching the membrane of the ovary.
      Ruptured follicle - when the egg is mature, it bursts from the follicle. This may cause slight bleeding. The peritoneum (abdominal lining) could be irritated by the blood or fluids from the ruptured follicle, and this may trigger the pain.
      Underlying medical problems
      In most cases, ovulation pain is harmless. However, severe and prolonged ovulation pain, or other pains felt in the lower abdomen, can be symptomatic of various medical conditions including:
      Salpingitis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes following an infection.
      Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease - inflammation following an infection.
      Endometriosis - the lining of the womb (endometrium) grows in other locations, such as the bowel. Other symptoms include painful periods and painful sex.
      Ovarian cyst - an abnormal pocket of fluid that develops on the ovary.
      Ectopic pregnancy - a pregnancy that develops outside of the womb, most commonly in one of the fallopian tubes. Symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Seek urgent medical help.
      Appendicitis - inflammation of the appendix can sometimes be confused with ovulation pain. Seek urgent medical help if the pain is on the right side of your abdomen and you are experiencing nausea and vomiting.
      Other gastrointestinal problems - lower abdominal pain can be symptomatic of a range of gastrointestinal problems, including perforated ulcer, gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. QUESTION:
    What are the advantages of reduced gametophytes and production of seeds as seen in gymnosperms?

    • ANSWER:
      Increased cross fertilization and great dispersal of the next generation are the advantages of multicellular pollen and seeds.
      Spores are the way ferns and moss spread longer distances. Spores are single-celled and vulnerable .so dispersal is limited. Being tied to water, as moss & ferns are with flagellated gametes, makes self-fertilization more common so genetic recombination is at a low rate.
      Gymnosperm and angiosperm plants -keep the spore- until it matures as the entire male gametophyte or pollen. This groups them as Spermatophytes with multicellular pollen rather than single celled spores. Essentially the gametophyte phase is reduced to the brief period of reproduction. Male cones or male flower parts release the miniature gametophyte as the grain of pollen. Female cones or flower parts grow the female gametophyte in an ovule. In cones the ovule is sheltered by the cone's scale but is not enclosed. In flowers the ovule is inside an ovary.
      Spermatophytes have no flagellated gametes to restrict these plants to water for reproduction. With the mature, miniature, male gametophyte arriving as pollen the sperm nuclei are delivered to the egg nuclei to form a zygote. This allows much- more recombination of genetic material with the mobility of pollen. Then the seed is the juvenile sporophyte that is also mobile & capable of dispersal.
      These plants are much less vulnerable to reproductive losses while ensuring cross-fertilization and dispersing to new locations.

  20. QUESTION:
    11 DPO positive pregnancy test and feeling pulling feeling in abdomen?
    I just got a BFP on a HPT and I'm 11 DPO (feel like I'm talking code LOL). Anyway, I have these really odd symptoms that I haven't felt before in past pregnancies and I was wondering if anyone might be able to shed some light on them. BTW I'm 35 so considered high risk and I have had 7 miscarriages in the past.'

    The symptoms are: a general queasy feeling; major dehydration; shortness of breath (I sing and I can't get any support or hold notes); a pinchy feeling on the left side of the abdomen at level of my belly button (don't think it's ovary related); and last but not least, when I take a deep breath in I get a pain in the same location like I just did 100 sit ups.

    Should I be concerned? Any ideas what these symptoms lead to? Are they just REALLY early prego symptoms?

    Thanks!
    Oh! Another symptom lower backache and in general bodyaches :)

    • ANSWER:
      I just got home from the the Dr. for pain on the left side in the same spot as you described, also with a pulling feeling. They did a scan and found a "pregnancy cycst" on my left ovary. I was told it releases progesterone until the placenta forms, then it will go away. I'm not far enough along to see baby (3 weeks 6 days). As for the other symptoms, maybe they could be from a combo of your age and your body just not responding to pregnancy the way you used to? I would say that would be a question for your OB. Wish I could help more with your other symptoms! Hope you have a happy, healthy pregnancy!

  21. QUESTION:
    Scared I could have gotten pregnant?
    I've been freaking out ever since I got pregnant. I got pregnant and had a surgical abortion. It was very hard on me and made me very depressed. I know if I ever got pregnant again I would never get another abortion.

    So here's what happened. Me and my boyfriend took a shower together and he started kissing me and then he started fingering me. While he was doing it I was touching him and after I was really wet down there so I rinsed my hands off in the shower (the water was warm) and then I just started washing myself off with the water. I didn't put my fingers inside of me but I was kinda like rubbing myself up and down just to get everything off. Ever since I've been so scared. I get so nervous when it comes to sex and I just had the abortion a few weeks ago. I would hate myself if I got pregnant again. I'm just afraid of the pre *** stuff. Do you think I could of gotten pregnant? Please no rude comments.

    • ANSWER:
      Pregnancy occurs when sperm fertilize an egg that has been released from the ovaries during ovulation. The cells divide until the egg implants on the uterine wall, where it grows from a blastocyst into a zygote and into a fetus. For this to happen, sperm need to be introduced into the vagina.

      It's highly unlikely that you are pregnant. For one, you just had a surgical abortion. That wreaks heavy damage to your uterus and reproductive system; it can scar the walls of the uterus, making it very difficult for the lining to properly build again, let alone have a fertilized egg successfully implant on it. Pre-ejaculate contains very little to no amounts of sperm, so it's highly unlikely that could cause pregnancy, especially because it was transferring from one location to another. In addition, the water would have washed anything off.

      If you are going to have sex you need to be sure you are using condoms for protection, and I suggest looking into another form of birth control as well. Good luck in your healing process and be safe.

  22. QUESTION:
    Does Amenorrhea have a cure?

    • ANSWER:
      Most of the time, yes:

      Primary amenorrhea caused by late puberty usually does not need to be treated because the condition will go away on its own. For primary amenorrhea caused by certain genetic (inherited) abnormalities, treatment depends on the problem. For example, if a genetic defect prevents the ovaries from functioning properly, a young girl may be given supplemental ovarian hormones to allow her to develop normal secondary sex characteristics (breast development, pubic hair) and to prevent osteoporosis (bone-thinning disease), which can be caused by low estrogen levels. If amenorrhea is caused by a structural problem, such as a vagina that is an unusual shape or doesn't have an opening, surgery is usually necessary.

      If you have secondary amenorrhea due to menopause or a hysterectomy, your doctor will prescribe medications to prevent osteoporosis and other complications of low estrogen levels. For other forms of secondary amenorrhea, the type of treatment depends on the cause:

      Stress If emotional stress is the problem, your doctor may advise you to enroll in a stress-management course.

      Obesity If obesity is triggering the condition, your doctor will outline a diet and exercise program aimed at helping you lose weight and improve overall fitness.

      Excessive athletic training If strenuous training is interrupting your menstrual cycle, your doctor will recommend a more moderate program. This will help normal menstruation to start again. It also will also decrease your risk of conditions related to low levels of estrogen, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, infertility and thinning of the tissues lining the vagina.

      Hormone imbalance If altered hormone levels are preventing ovulation (release of an egg from the ovary), your doctor may prescribe supplemental hormones.

      Tumors or cysts in the ovaries, uterus or pituitary gland If cysts or tumors are causing amenorrhea, treatment depends on their type and location. Surgery is sometimes necessary.

  23. QUESTION:
    How did the seed come about? in ferns there was the gametes that became sporophyte...?
    But in seed plants.. What happens? Exactly where on a seed plant does fertilisation occur and what exactly happens thereafter. Use gymnosperm as example. And what does naked seed mean
    Thanks
    I did read my text and that's fine what you say, but more importantly why does the book compare a haploid single celled spore to a seed, yet the spore on seedless plants form the gametophyte and the seed forms the sporophyte in seed plants

    • ANSWER:
      Plants stopped releasing the spore for dispersal but kept it to mature. Instead the male spore matured into the male gametophyte and was released as the pollen grain. This way it is multicellular with an ability to survive and directly deliver the sperm nuclei. This does away with the risk of dessication from swimming gametes. The entire male gametophyte arrives and delivers the sperm nuclei directly to the ovary. The nuclei reach the ova inside the ovule (female gameotophyte) under the scale.

      In conifers the female cone has the megasporangium or ovules, which produces the spores, under each scale. Inside this ovule the megaspore grows into a mature female gametophyte by stimulation from the pollen tube. Each ovule forms archegonia at the end open to the pollen tube. Each archegonia contains an egg that receives the 2 sperm nuclei for fertilization. This is a very slow process compared to flowering plants. Cones in some species take years to mature.
      http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot201/conifers/conifer_lecture.htm

      Naked seeds develop in an integument covered ovule on the undersurface of a scale not in a closed ovary.
      http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio111/gymnosperms.htm

      The point is the loss of flagellated sperm at risk while they move through a film a water for limited cross fertilization and the loss of a single celled haploid spore for dispersal to new locations. Instead there is a multicelled pollen (miniature male gametophyte) for cross breeding with a protected female gametophyte. Dispersal is accomplished by an entire dormant or quiescent sporophyte with food store inside a protective integument as a seed.
      Pollen & seeds give better cross breeding with distant members of a species and better chances of reaching new locations because they move as multicellular units rather than as vulnerable single cells.

      Its the same cycle of life stages with different points of quiescence for dispersal.

  24. QUESTION:
    what could improve my sex drive ?
    i am a female im 19 nearly 20 im not a virgin i've had sexual itercourse on many occasions i just dont have a very high sex drive, i never seem to want sex... I was wondering for the sake of possible future relationships what i could do (like if theres foods you can eat and stuff ) that could make me want to have sex more please help?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no simple pill or potion to increase sex drive in women. In fact, most women benefit from a multifaceted treatment approach aimed at the many causes behind this condition. This may include sex education, counseling, lifestyle changes and sometimes medication.

      Lifestyle changes you can make
      Healthy lifestyle changes can make a big difference in your desire for sex:

      Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise and strength training can increase your stamina, improve your body image, elevate your mood and enhance your libido.
      Stress less. Finding a better way to cope with work stress, financial stress and daily hassles can enhance your sex drive.
      Be happier. A sense of personal well-being and happiness are important to sexual interest. So find ways to bring a little extra joy to your world.
      Strengthen your pelvic muscles. Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises) can improve your awareness of the muscles involved in pleasurable sexual sensations and increase your libido. To perform these exercises, tighten your pelvic muscles as if you're stopping a stream of urine. Hold for a count of five, relax and repeat. Do these exercises several times a day.

      Relationship changes you and your partner can make
      For women, better emotional intimacy often leads to better sexual intimacy:

      Communicate with your partner. Conflicts and disagreements are a natural part of any relationship. Couples who learn to fight fair and communicate in an open, honest way usually maintain a stronger emotional connection, which can lead to better sex. Communicating about sex also is important. Talking about your likes and dislikes can set the stage for greater sexual intimacy.
      Seek counseling. Talking with a sex therapist or counselor skilled in addressing sexual concerns can help with low sex drive. Therapy often includes education about sexual response and techniques and recommendations for reading materials or couples' exercises.
      Set aside time for intimacy. Scheduling sex into your calendar may seem contrived and boring. But making intimacy a priority can help put your sex drive back on track.
      Add a little spice to your sex life. Try a different sexual position, a different time of day or a different location for sex. If you and your partner are open to experimentation, sex toys and fantasy can help rekindle your sexual sizzle.

      Medical treatments for low sex drive
      Medications aren't always necessary to treat low sex drive. But they can help.

      Treating underlying causes of low sex drive. The first medical intervention for low sex drive is usually addressing an underlying medical condition or medication that's known to have sexual side effects. This may include adjusting or changing your current medications or starting treatment for previously undetected conditions.
      Estrogen therapy. Systemic estrogen therapy by pill, patch or gel can have a positive effect on brain function and mood factors that affect sexual response. Local estrogen therapy in the form of a vaginal cream or a slow-releasing suppository or ring that you place in your vagina can increase blood flow to the vagina and help improve desire. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe a combination of estrogen and progesterone.
      Testosterone therapy. Male hormones, such as testosterone, play an important role in female sexual function, even though testosterone occurs in much lower amounts in women. However, replacing testosterone in women is controversial and it's not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sexual dysfunction in women. Plus, it can cause negative side effects, including acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and mood or personality changes. Testosterone seems most effective for women with low testosterone levels as a result of surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy). If you choose to use this therapy, your doctor will closely monitor your symptoms to make sure you're not experiencing negative side effects.

  25. QUESTION:
    Are there any OTC sexual type medication?
    Like Viagra?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no simple pill or potion to increase sex drive in women. In fact, most women benefit from a multifaceted treatment approach aimed at the many causes behind this condition. This may include sex education, counseling, lifestyle changes and sometimes medication.

      Lifestyle changes you can make
      Healthy lifestyle changes can make a big difference in your desire for sex:

      Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise and strength training can increase your stamina, improve your body image, elevate your mood and enhance your libido.
      Stress less. Finding a better way to cope with work stress, financial stress and daily hassles can enhance your sex drive.
      Be happier. A sense of personal well-being and happiness are important to sexual interest. So find ways to bring a little extra joy to your world.
      Strengthen your pelvic muscles. Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises) can improve your awareness of the muscles involved in pleasurable sexual sensations and increase your libido. To perform these exercises, tighten your pelvic muscles as if you're stopping a stream of urine. Hold for a count of five, relax and repeat. Do these exercises several times a day.

      Relationship changes you and your partner can make
      For women, better emotional intimacy often leads to better sexual intimacy:

      Communicate with your partner. Conflicts and disagreements are a natural part of any relationship. Couples who learn to fight fair and communicate in an open, honest way usually maintain a stronger emotional connection, which can lead to better sex. Communicating about sex also is important. Talking about your likes and dislikes can set the stage for greater sexual intimacy.
      Seek counseling. Talking with a sex therapist or counselor skilled in addressing sexual concerns can help with low sex drive. Therapy often includes education about sexual response and techniques and recommendations for reading materials or couples' exercises.
      Set aside time for intimacy. Scheduling sex into your calendar may seem contrived and boring. But making intimacy a priority can help put your sex drive back on track.
      Add a little spice to your sex life. Try a different sexual position, a different time of day or a different location for sex. If you and your partner are open to experimentation, sex toys and fantasy can help rekindle your sexual sizzle.

      Medical treatments for low sex drive
      Medications aren't always necessary to treat low sex drive. But they can help.

      Treating underlying causes of low sex drive. The first medical intervention for low sex drive is usually addressing an underlying medical condition or medication that's known to have sexual side effects. This may include adjusting or changing your current medications or starting treatment for previously undetected conditions.
      Estrogen therapy. Systemic estrogen therapy by pill, patch or gel can have a positive effect on brain function and mood factors that affect sexual response. Local estrogen therapy in the form of a vaginal cream or a slow-releasing suppository or ring that you place in your vagina can increase blood flow to the vagina and help improve desire. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe a combination of estrogen and progesterone.
      Testosterone therapy. Male hormones, such as testosterone, play an important role in female sexual function, even though testosterone occurs in much lower amounts in women. However, replacing testosterone in women is controversial and it's not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sexual dysfunction in women. Plus, it can cause negative side effects, including acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and mood or personality changes. Testosterone seems most effective for women with low testosterone levels as a result of surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy). If you choose to use this therapy, your doctor will closely monitor your symptoms and blood levels to make sure you're not experiencing negative side effects.

  26. QUESTION:
    I am a 40 year old female that is wanting to have a strong orgasm what med or what can I do?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi,
      There is no simple pill or potion to increase sex drive in women. In fact, most women benefit from a multifaceted treatment approach aimed at the many causes behind this condition. This may include sex education, counseling, lifestyle changes and sometimes medication.

      Lifestyle changes you can make
      Healthy lifestyle changes can make a big difference in your desire for sex:

      Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise and strength training can increase your stamina, improve your body image, elevate your mood and enhance your libido.Stress less. Finding a better way to cope with work stress, financial stress and daily hassles can enhance your sex drive.Be happier. A sense of personal well-being and happiness are important to sexual interest. So find ways to bring a little extra joy to your world.Strengthen your pelvic muscles. Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises) can improve your awareness of the muscles involved in pleasurable sexual sensations and increase your libido. To perform these exercises, tighten your pelvic muscles as if you're stopping a stream of urine. Hold for a count of five, relax and repeat. Do these exercises several times a day.Relationship changes you and your partner can make
      For women, better emotional intimacy often leads to better sexual intimacy:

      Communicate with your partner. Conflicts and disagreements are a natural part of any relationship. Couples who learn to fight fair and communicate in an open, honest way usually maintain a stronger emotional connection, which can lead to better sex. Communicating about sex also is important. Talking about your likes and dislikes can set the stage for greater sexual intimacy.Seek counseling. Talking with a sex therapist or counselor skilled in addressing sexual concerns can help with low sex drive. Therapy often includes education about sexual response and techniques and recommendations for reading materials or couples' exercises.Set aside time for intimacy. Scheduling sex into your calendar may seem contrived and boring. But making intimacy a priority can help put your sex drive back on track.Add a little spice to your sex life. Try a different sexual position, a different time of day or a different location for sex. If you and your partner are open to experimentation, sex toys and fantasy can help rekindle your sexual sizzle.Medical treatments for low sex drive
      Medications aren't always necessary to treat low sex drive. But they can help.

      Treating underlying causes of low sex drive. The first medical intervention for low sex drive is usually addressing an underlying medical condition or medication that's known to have sexual side effects. This may include adjusting or changing your current medications or starting treatment for previously undetected conditions.Estrogen therapy. Systemic estrogen therapy by pill, patch or gel can have a positive effect on brain function and mood factors that affect sexual response. Local estrogen therapy in the form of a vaginal cream or a slow-releasing suppository or ring that you place in your vagina can increase blood flow to the vagina and help improve desire. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe a combination of estrogen and progesterone.Testosterone therapy. Male hormones, such as testosterone, play an important role in female sexual function, even though testosterone occurs in much lower amounts in women. However, replacing testosterone in women is controversial and it's not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sexual dysfunction in women. Plus, it can cause negative side effects, including acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and mood or personality changes. Testosterone seems most effective for women with low testosterone levels as a result of surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy). If you choose to use this therapy, your doctor will closely monitor your symptoms to make sure you're not experiencing negative side effects.

  27. QUESTION:
    question about sex?!?!?
    ok this may be a TMI question but...

    is there anything i can do to improve my sex drive? i've just lost interest in it and my husband still likes it and gets grumpy if he goes even a week without it. im 29 and i don't feel that i should be this way... yet any way. i could care less if i go 2 months without it. is there anyone out there that has or is going through this? any advice would be appreciated :)

    • ANSWER:
      There is no simple pill or potion to increase sex drive in women. In fact, most women benefit from a multifaceted treatment approach aimed at the many causes behind this condition. This may include sex education, counseling, lifestyle changes and sometimes medication.

      Lifestyle changes you can make
      Healthy lifestyle changes can make a big difference in your desire for sex:

      * Exercise. Regular aerobic exercise and strength training can increase your stamina, improve your body image, elevate your mood and enhance your libido.
      * Stress less. Finding a better way to cope with work stress, financial stress and daily hassles can enhance your sex drive.
      * Be happier. A sense of personal well-being and happiness are important to sexual interest. So find ways to bring a little extra joy to your world.
      * Strengthen your pelvic muscles. Pelvic floor exercises (Kegel exercises) can improve your awareness of the muscles involved in pleasurable sexual sensations and increase your libido. To perform these exercises, tighten your pelvic muscles as if you're stopping a stream of urine. Hold for a count of five, relax and repeat. Do these exercises several times a day.

      Relationship changes you and your partner can make
      For women, better emotional intimacy often leads to better sexual intimacy:

      * Communicate with your partner. Conflicts and disagreements are a natural part of any relationship. Couples who learn to fight fair and communicate in an open, honest way usually maintain a stronger emotional connection, which can lead to better sex. Communicating about sex also is important. Talking about your likes and dislikes can set the stage for greater sexual intimacy.
      * Seek counseling. Talking with a sex therapist or counselor skilled in addressing sexual concerns can help with low sex drive. Therapy often includes education about sexual response and techniques and recommendations for reading materials or couples' exercises.
      * Set aside time for intimacy. Scheduling sex into your calendar may seem contrived and boring. But making intimacy a priority can help put your sex drive back on track.
      * Add a little spice to your sex life. Try a different sexual position, a different time of day or a different location for sex. If you and your partner are open to experimentation, sex toys and fantasy can help rekindle your sexual sizzle.

      Medical treatments for low sex drive
      Medications aren't always necessary to treat low sex drive. But they can help.

      * Treating underlying causes of low sex drive. The first medical intervention for low sex drive is usually addressing an underlying medical condition or medication that's known to have sexual side effects. This may include adjusting or changing your current medications or starting treatment for previously undetected conditions.
      * Estrogen therapy. Systemic estrogen therapy by pill, patch or gel can have a positive effect on brain function and mood factors that affect sexual response. Local estrogen therapy in the form of a vaginal cream or a slow-releasing suppository or ring that you place in your vagina can increase blood flow to the vagina and help improve desire. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe a combination of estrogen and progesterone.
      * Testosterone therapy. Male hormones, such as testosterone, play an important role in female sexual function, even though testosterone occurs in much lower amounts in women. However, replacing testosterone in women is controversial and it's not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for sexual dysfunction in women. Plus, it can cause negative side effects, including acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and mood or personality changes. Testosterone seems most effective for women with low testosterone levels as a result of surgery to remove the ovaries (oophorectomy). If you choose to use this therapy, your doctor will closely monitor your symptoms to make sure you're not experiencing negative side effects.

  28. QUESTION:
    What are some common genetic mutations?
    I know red hair is one, but what else?

    • ANSWER:
      i don't think red hair is. i'm pretty sure it's just a variation on brown, like how green eyes are a version of brown eyes (a common dominant trait). which if it is a variation on brown hair it would explain why i am a brunette yet i have serious orange undertones (like i look like a redhead in bright sunlight).

      some common mutations:
      not a specific one, but in the BRCA1/2 genes -- they can cause various cancers (breast, ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, male breast cancer, prostate cancer, a couple others that i can't think of at the moment).
      polydactyly -- extra digits. not very harmful, and not really a problem (some doctors will tell parents an extra digit doesn't need to be removed because it's just chillin' and isn't causing any problems so why go through surgery if you don't need to?)
      a polymorphism is a location on a chromosome where a mutation is likely to occur, but doesn't cause any known phenotypic change/problem. (genotypically, the cell is mutated, but phenotypically there is no disease caused, no appearance changes, etc.)
      cancer of any sort -- some cancers are caused by telomerase being activated so the cells live forever and just keep dividing uncontrollably.
      thymidine dimers -- UV radiation causes thymine nucleotides next to each other in the DNA strand to fuse together. if they are not excised and fixed, they cause a problem during DNA replication leading to some problem or another (depending on where the mutation is located) and then skin cancer develops.
      melanoma is a specific skin cancer, which (if i remember correctly), is where the thymidine dimer is in the gene for melanin (the skin pigment), and when the dimer isn't fixed then too much melanin is produced (which is why you get tan), but in just the wrong place you also get the uncontrolled cell growth, which is the cause of the growth of moles on people in various places (armpits, legs, ears, neck, back, arms, etc.) moles are often normal and benign (i have a really small one actually), but they can sometimes (and not too uncommonly) be malignant and cancerous (one of my dad's cousins had to have a mole removed because it was actually a skin cancer tumor)
      a certain mutation renders an individual incapable of digesting a certain amino acid (phenylketoneuria is the name) and so foods containing it must be avoided.
      there is a certain gene called follstatin that has a mutation of sorts in it which is considered a main cause of polycystic ovaries syndrome (not the specific cause of the disease, but it is a key component of the condition). it prevents normal maturation of the egg follicle in the ovary and causes a cyst to develop (rather than an egg being released), and so the ovary becomes quite calloused from much scar tissue.
      i don't know the specific mutations themselves, but some diseases caused by mutations:
      fragile X
      angelman's
      beckwith syndrome
      cri-du-chat
      coffin-sirus
      duchenne muscular dystrophy (mutation in the dystrophin gene leads to lack of dystrophin production which is critical in muscle regeneration)
      cystic fibrosis
      neurofibromatosis
      prader-willi syndrome
      tay-sachs
      sickle-cell
      achondroplasia (aka dwarfism)
      primordial dwarfism (the people are only up to about 2'6")
      albinoism
      HNPCC (a type of hereditary colon cancer--hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer)
      crohn's disease
      some forms of deafness are genetic
      huntington's
      alzheimer's may be genetic
      marfan syndrome
      microcephaly
      progeria (severe and fast aging disease)
      retinoblastoma (a type of childhood eye cancer)
      xeroderma pigmentosum (lack exonucleases, so can't do DNA repair, so can't go out in the sun because cancer is much easier and much more likely to develop...the thymidine dimers can't be repaired)
      severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

      NOT mutations:
      down syndrome -- caused by an entire extra chromosome, not just a change in one
      red hair -- again, i'm pretty sure it's just a variation of brown.

      google it and see what you find. you might want to try looking at the genome map at the NIH website. it tells you all the genes they know about so far and what the gene product is. because i'm sure you've had enough of my answer by now. :)

  29. QUESTION:
    what is ectopic pregnancy?
    what is ectopic pregnancy?
    what is cyst? thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      An ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum is developed in any tissue other than the uterine wall. Most ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube (so-called tubal pregnancies), but implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen. The fetus produces enzymes that allow it to implant in varied types of tissues, and thus an embryo implanted elsewhere than the uterus can cause great tissue damage in its efforts to reach a sufficient supply of blood. An ectopic pregnancy is a medical emergency, and, if not treated properly, can lead to the death of the woman.

      In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg enters the uterus and settles into the uterine lining where it has plenty of room to divide and grow. About 1% of pregnancies are in an ectopic location with implantation not occurring inside of the womb, and of these 98% occur in the Fallopian tubes.[1]

      In a typical ectopic pregnancy, the embryo does not reach the uterus, but instead adheres to the lining of the Fallopian tube. The implanted embryo burrows actively into the tubal lining. Most commonly this invades vessels and will cause bleeding. This intratubal bleeding (hematosalpinx) expels the implantation out of the tubal end as a tubal abortion. Some women thinking they are having a miscarriage are actually having a tubal abortion. There is no inflammation of the tube in ectopic pregnancy. The pain is caused by prostaglandins released at the implantation site, and by free blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is a local irritant. Sometimes the bleeding might be heavy enough to threaten the health or life of the woman. Usually this degree of bleeding is due to delay in diagnosis, but sometimes, especially if the implantation is in the proximal tube (just before it enters the uterus), it may invade into the nearby Sampson artery, causing heavy bleeding earlier than usual.

      If left untreated, about half of ectopic pregnancies will resolve without treatment. These are the tubal abortions. The advent of methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancy has reduced the need for surgery; however, surgical intervention is still required in cases where the Fallopian tube has ruptured or is in danger of doing so. This intervention may be laparoscopic or through a larger incision, known as a laparotomy.

      Causes
      There are a number of risk factors for ectopic pregnancies. However, in as many as one third [2]to one half [3] of ectopic pregnancies, no risk factors can be identified. Risk factors include: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, those who have been exposed to DES, tubal surgery, smoking, previous ectopic pregnancy, and tubal ligation.

      What is Cyst?
      A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, a cyst could go away on its own or may have to be removed through surgery.

      Ovarian Cyst:
      An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid, surrounded by a very thin wall, within an ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about two centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. An ovarian cyst can be as small as a pea, or larger than a cantaloupe.

      Most ovarian cysts are functional in nature, and harmless (benign).[1] In the US, ovarian cysts are found in nearly all premenopausal women, and in up to 14.8% of postmenopausal women.

      Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages. They occur most often, however, during a woman's childbearing years.

      Some ovarian cysts cause problems, such as bleeding and pain. Surgery may be required to remove cysts larger than 5 centimeters in diameter.

  30. QUESTION:
    Really hard biology packet.?
    So I have this biology packet to do & most of the questions are really hard. Like their not even based on the book or anything their just random questions that my teacher expects us to answer from the top of our head and I'm really trying to answer them but its alot of work so I'm stuck here at 3:13 in the morning trying to finish it. Here are some of the questions that I have left to do. I'm not making you answer them all of course but just a couple would really help. Thanks.

    25.What are some medical concerns about human gene therapy?
    26.What are some ethical issues surrounding DNA fingerprinting, in vitro fertilization, human gene therapy and genetically modified organisms (GMO s)?
    27.How do we use plasmids, bacteria and viruses to create human insulin to treat Diabetes?
    28.What are the parts and functions of the male reproductive system?
    29.What are the parts and functions of the female reproductive system?
    30.What happens during fertilization? Where does fertilization occur?
    31.What are the major events of the first trimester of pregnancy?
    32.What are the major events of the second trimester of pregnancy?
    33.What are the major events of the third trimester of pregnancy?
    34.Describe what happens during these phases of the cell cycle:
    a.Gap 1:
    b.Synthesis:
    c.Gap 2:
    d.Mitosis:
    35.Draw the phases of mitosis in order of Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase. What are some characteristics of each that you could use to identify the phase under a microscope?
    36.What is the purpose of Mitosis?
    37.Why is Mitosis an example of asexual reproduction?
    38.What is the difference between haploid cells and diploid cells?
    39.How does Meiosis differ from Mitosis? What are some crucial differences between Metaphase I of Mitosis and Metaphase I of Meiosis?
    40.How does crossing-over (synapsis) of chromosomes in meiosis aid in genetic variation?
    Standard 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms
    41.How does the idea of Natural Selection support the overall Theory of Evolution? Does every organism have an equal chance of surviving and reproducing? Why?
    42.How does the following evidence support Darwin s inferences about Evolution
    a.Fossil record
    b.Homologous and analogous structures
    c.Embryology
    d.Biogeography (location of species)
    e.Molecular biology (genes and DNA sequences)
    43.How are groups of organisms organized into kingdoms and domains? What are some key features they must possess to be in the same kingdom? What key features must they possess to be in the same domain?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi, sorry I've only studied bio for a year so far, so I only know the answers to some of the questions, hope this helps though! :)

      25. The genes introduced into the body during gene therapy may enter the ova or sperms, creating the potential to affect the offspring and future generations in an uncontrolled way

      26. For human gene therapy just write the above ^^. I'm assuming for GMOs you can write about crops, some biotechnology companies could produce GM crops with seeds that do not germinate (terminator technology) which would force the farmer to buy new seeds for each new batch of crops causing financial burden on small scale farmers or those from poorer countries.

      27. Transfer of human insulin gene. Steps below,
      Isolate the human insulin gene from a cell
      Extract the human insulin gene using a restriction enzyme, producing "sticky ends"
      Obtain a plasmid from an E. coli bacterium
      Cut the plasmid with the same restriction enzyme to produce complementary "sticky ends"
      Mix the plasmid with the DNA fragment containing the human insulin gene, combine them using DNA ligase
      Mix the recombinant plasmid with the bacterium and apply temporary electric shock or heat to open up the pores of the bacterium to allow the plasmid to enter.
      Place bacterium in a fermenter with a nutrient broth where it will multiply, forming a large population of bacterium that will be burst open to release insulin. Insulin is then extracted and purified for medical use

      28. Testis- produces sperm and male sex hormones
      Scrotum- provides sperm with suitable temperature for proper development
      Epididymis- site of sperm maturation
      Spermatic chord- blood vessels in spermatic chord carry blood to each testis
      Sperm duct- helps to conduct sperm from testis out of body
      Prostate gland- together with other glands secrete an alkaline fluid which contains nutrients and enzymes to nourish sperm and permit sperm motility, mixture of fluid and sperm=semen
      Urethra- conducts urine/semen out of body, nervous reflexes and sphincter prevents urine from coming out of bladder during ejaculation
      Penis- when erect, it is able to enter vagina during intercourse to deposit semen into the female reproductive system

      29. Ovary- produces ova; releases eggs when eggs mature. Produces female sex hormones
      Fallopian tube- conducts mature egg from ovary to uterus, eggs usually fertilised here
      Uterus- provides suitable environment for foetal development during pregnancy. Smooth muscles in uterine wall contracts to expel foetus during birth.
      Endometrium- embryo implanted here
      Cervix- keeps opening of cervix closed to help maintain pregnancy, dilates during birth to allow foetus to pass out of uterus
      Vagina- allows flow of blood out of uterus during menstruation. Receives semen during intercourse. Allow passage of foetus out of uterus during birth.

      30. Sperms meet with egg, enzymes released by acrosome in the sperm disperse follicle cells and digest an area of the egg membrane. One sperm penetrates the egg and the egg membrane thickens and hardens preventing entry of other sperms. Sperms that do not fertilise the egg eventually die. The haploid nuclei of both sperm and egg fuse to form diploid zygote.
      Fertilisation occurs in the Fallopian tubes.

      36. For growth, repair and asexual reproduction in plants

      37. Mitosis occurs in plants and asexual reproduction in plants is called vegetative propagation, organs for vegetative propagation such as stolons and swollen roots contain shoot buds, in which mitosis occurs to produce a new plant

      38. Haploid cell contain half of the total amount of chromosomes a cell should have such as in gametes
      Diploid cells contains all the chromosomes a cells should have such as in a normal body cell

      39. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells during growth and repair. meiosis occur in germ cells during gamete production
      Mitosis= One nuclear division producing 2 daughter cells Meiosis= 2 nuclear division producing 4 daughter cells
      Mitosis- daughter cells have same number of chromosomes as parent cell, meiosis- half the number of chromosome as parent cell
      Mitosis- crossing over does not occur. meiosis- crossing over occurs
      Mitosis- daughter cells genetically identical to parent cell meiosis- daughter cells genetically different to parent cell

      Difference between the metaphases - chromosomes line up at equator of spindle in mitosis but PAIR of chromosomes line up at spindle in meiosis. Metaphase 1 in meiosis results in independent assortment of genes when cell divides

      40. The chromatids of homologous chromosomes coil around each other at one or more points called chiasmata. Crossing over occurs at each chiasma at which the chromatids break and exchange parts to produce new combinations of genes in the chromatids.

  31. QUESTION:
    Please help with biology questions, I really need these answers?
    1.Which of the following would inhibit grouping organisms in the same genus?
    A.Organisms from different locations
    B.Organisms from different time periods
    C.Organisms that look similar on the outside
    D.Organisms that eat plants with organisms who eat animals
    When does secondary succession occur?
    A. After an avalanche covers a slope with rocks
    B.After a forest fire burns down all of the trees
    C.After a glacier retreats leaving rock rubble behind
    D.After a volcano erupts and covers the mountain side with lava.
    2.Which group of zooflagellates is known for very little movement?
    A.Ciliates
    B.Psuedopods
    C.Sporozoans
    D.Zooflagellates
    3.A(n) _______ contains information but does not have the ability to do anything with it until a host helps it.
    A.bacteria
    B.pathogen
    C.interferon
    D.virus
    4.Which of the following best describes ecological succession?
    A.The change in the composition of species in the community over time
    B.The change in the genetic make up of a species over time
    C.The change in the number of populations in a community over time
    D.The change in populations over time
    5.Which of the following helped allow for plants to live away from bodies of water?
    A.Chlorophyl
    B.Tracheid cells
    C.Chloroplasts
    D.Vascular cells
    6.What is the embryonic stage of plants called?
    A.Gametophyte
    B.Ovary
    C.Pollen
    D.Seed
    7.What kind of tissue are xylem and phloem?
    A.Parenchyma
    B.Cuticles
    C.Vascular cylinders
    D.Vascular tissues
    8.Carbon enters an ecosystem when ________
    A.water cools in the atmosphere.
    B.plants take in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
    C.plants release carbon dioxide.
    D.carbon is released during cellular respiration.
    9.Which of the following is NOT an effect of the marine algae blooms known as "red tides"?
    A.Death of many fish
    B.Death of many mussels and clams
    C.Respiratory problems in vertebrates
    D.Shellfish poisoning
    10.Animal-like protists are ________.
    A.amoeba
    B.heterotrophs
    C.ciliates
    D.paramecia
    11.Pine, fir, spruce, cedar, yew, redwood, and sequoias are some of the members of which class of Gymnosperms.
    A.Cycadae
    B.Ginkoae
    C.Fernae
    D.Coniferae
    12.Plant-like protists are so grouped together because _______.
    A.they convert nutrients from soil into energy
    B.they contain the pigment chlorophyll
    C.they do not move on their own
    D.they do not consume other organisms
    13.The Greek word sarco means _______.
    A.fungus
    B.inside
    C.coffin
    D.death
    14.How do fungi obtain nutrition?
    A.They form a fake foot to scoop food into their mouths.
    B.They absorb their food through cell walls.
    C.They digest their food.
    D.They use cilia to sweep food into mouth-like openings.
    15.What is the smallest life form that does not contain a nucleus?
    A.Eukaryote
    B.Flagella
    C.Prokaryote
    D.Virus
    16.Which of the following is UNTRUE about fungi?
    A.Many fungi obtain their energy from decaying matter.
    B.Some fungi are parasites.
    C.Fungi digest their food.
    D.Most fungi are made up of structures called hyphae.
    17.Which of the following groups of organisms includes the giant ocean kelp?
    A.Brown
    B.Golden
    C.Green
    D.Red
    18.When a fish eats a shark s leftovers, it is an example of _____.
    A.Competition
    B.Parasitism
    C.Commensalism
    D.Predation
    19.The Kingdom Monera was split into which two kingdoms?
    A.Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria
    B.Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
    C.Cyanobacteria and Eubacteria
    D.Methanobacteria and Halobacteria
    20.Which of the following is a characteristic of all eukaryotes?
    A.They don't use oxygen in their metabolism.
    B.They don't have a nucleus in their cells.
    C.They have a cell wall.
    D.They have a nucleus in their cells.
    21.Animals, plants, and microorganisms are considered to be the __________ components of an ecosystem.
    A.biotic
    B.abiotic
    C.nonliving
    D.inorganic
    22.What are the bacteria that use photosynthesis to produce light?
    A.Archaebacteria
    B.Cyanobacteria
    C.Infectious bacteria
    D.True bacteria
    23._______ begin with two leaves.
    A.Angiosperms
    B.Gymnosperms
    C.Monocotyledonae
    D.Dicotyledonae
    24.Which archaebacteria lives in salty environments?
    A.Cyanobacteria
    B.Halophile
    C.Methanogen
    D.Thermophile
    25.What is the synonymn taxonomic grouping of phylum in plants?
    A.Category
    B.Class
    C.Division
    D.Order
    26.Certain crocodiles allow a small bird called an Egyptian plover to sit inside their open mouths. The birds feed on harmful leeches and food particles found between the teeth of the crocodile. This relationship is best described as a type of:
    A.mutualism
    B.parasitism
    C.symbolism
    D.commensalism
    No textbook on hand, summer school work

    • ANSWER:
      1. A
      ...B
      2. C sporozoans
      3. D virus
      4. A
      5. B tracheid cells
      6. D seed
      7. D vascular tissue
      8. D cellular resp.
      9. B death of muscles & clams
      10.A amoeba
      11. D conifer

      you do the rest


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