Are Cyst When A Tumor Is Considered Cancerous It Is Called

Breast cancer is the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the breast. Under normal circumstances, the cells of the body reproduce in an orderly manner in order to facilitate growth and replace worn-out or damaged tissues. Cancer is caused when the cells grow uncontrollably into a mass of tissue, which is called a tumor. These tumors could be non-cancerous (benign) or they could be cancerous (malignant). The malignant or cancerous cells keep building up and form a tumor. Sometimes these malignant cells spread to other parts of the body through the lymph system, forming new cancers called metastases or secondaries.

Breast Cancer Symptoms

There are no symptoms and no pain in early cancer. Cancer is first suspected when an individual discovers a breast lump or when an abnormality is found on mammography. Though all breast lumps are not necessarily cancerous, it is important to get them evaluated by a doctor to rule out the incidence of cancer.

Other signs of cancer could be a lump above the collarbone or in the armpit that does not go away or nipple inversion that is a new development and was not present earlier. Breast discharge that is bloody or only from one breast are also cause for concern and should be checked by a doctor.

Risk Factors for Cancer

Gender, age and hereditary factors are the three major determining factors for breast cancer.

Gender is a critical factor and women are at a much higher risk of developing breast cancer than men.

Though breast cancer can occur at any age, the risk increases with age. A 60 year old woman has a 1 in 30 chance of developing cancer as opposed to a 30 year old woman who has once chance in 280.
Women who have a family history of cancer are also at a higher risk of developing cancer.

When to seek Medical Care

Breast cancer is not an overnight development; it develops and grows over months and years. However once it is identified, treatment should be sought immediately as breast cancer is much more difficult to treat when it spreads.

It is critical that you see a doctor as soon as possible if you notice any of the possible symptoms of cancer or if any abnormality has been found in your mammogram.

Treatment of Breast Cancer

Treatment of cancer has the highest success rate is treatment is started in the early stages. There are several different treatment methods available, which are often used in combination taking into consideration individual circumstances.

Some of the possible treatment methods include:

Chemotherapy- where the cancer cells are controlled or killed with a course of drugs.

Radiotherapy- where the cancer cells are controlled or killed with a course of high energy X-rays.

Surgery- this could involve either a lumpectomy, where the cancer along with a small part of the breast surrounding it is removed or a mastectomy , where the entire breast is removed.

Hormone therapy- this form of treatment is used to control the growth of breast cancer that develops and grows due to changes in hormones.

Frequently Asked Questions

    I have a 'fat tumor' that grow on my back & its getting bigger every day. what's it call in Med term & cure ?
    It start like a pimple and just keep growing year after year & now is the size of thumb. It is harmless according to some but it does make me feel bad. what should I do ???

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms that you describe resemble those of a Lipoma, which is a growth of fat cells enclosed in a fibrous capsule and found just below the skin. They are the most common form of non-cancerous soft tissue growth and they will not turn cancerous. The tendency for growth is considered to be hereditary. The other possible, though unlikely cause, is a sebaceous cyst or epidermoid cyst. This is usually a result of swollen hair follicles or a possible skin trauma. It is a closed sac occurring just under the skin which contains a "pasty" or "cheesy" looking substance. A foul odour is also often present in the substance called keratin which fills sebaceous cysts. Keratin is a protein that creates the sac of cells called sebaceous cysts. There are three alternative treatments for a lipoma, apart from leaving it alone, and they are Steroid injections - This treatment shrinks the lipoma, but usually doesn't completely eliminate the tumour. Liposuction -This treatment uses a needle and a large syringe to remove the fatty tumor. Liposuction is usually done when the lipoma is in a location where you want to avoid a large scar. It's difficult to remove the entire tumor with this technique. And lastly, Surgical removal. Some home treatments for sebaceous cysts include applying moist heat and keeping the area well cleaned. Under no circumstances should you try to pop the cyst as it can lead to infection of the surrounding tissue. Surgical removal is sometimes performed, but care has to be taken to completely remove the sac, otherwise the cyst will regenerate.


      The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

    Ovarian Cyst Shrinking, need check again?
    In November 2012 my doctor found a 2.7 ovarian cyst on my right ovary. She said in another 3 months I should come back and see if it shrunk, got bigger or was gone. I went back three months later and I found out that the cyst had shrunk to about 1.8 cm. My doctor informed me it was a functional fluid filled cyst and I shouldn't worry. She did not say to come back again to check it. That made me think it will continue to shrink, however it worries me a little. What I'm asking is should I go back again to see if it's shrunk more or if it is gone? I still have occasional pelvic pain but not like it was. Can it still be ovarian cancer even though it has shrunk? I don't really want to go through another tvus either. The doctor i saw was also my primary, not a formal obgyn, do you think that makes a big difference? Is 6 months a long time to have a cyst and have it not go away even though it's shrinking slowly? Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Ovarian cysts in women of child-bearing age are very common and usually aren't a problem. Ovaries are full of tiny cyst-like structure called "follicles". Each one of these contains an egg cell, and it serves as a kind of a nursery for the egg cell to mature in. Every month, one of these follicles will enlarge until it ruptures and releases its egg. The enlarged follicle can be referred to as a "follicular cyst" and is perfectly normal. We all do it every month, and most of us never know anything about it. If you are of childbearing age, then it's debatable whether or not your "cyst" was really anything to worry about at all. Some doctors will even consider any simple cyst (one without septations) in a childbearing-age woman to be a normal part of the ovary if it is under 3 cm in size. In my day to day work in ultrasound, I see small ovarian cysts every day and the doctors I work with are never very concerned about them.

      Since your cyst has shrunk, that pretty much rules out cancer. Malignant tumors don't shrink, they grow. Also, the vast majority of cancerous tumors are partly or completely solid on the inside, while a cyst is filled with fluid. So don't you worry! It looks like things are headed in the right direction and you probably don't need another exam to check on that cyst.

    what is meant by cyst ?

    • ANSWER:
      No, it is not considered a cancer. Cysts are actually very common and almost everyone has it, some people notice it and get it diagnosed, some people don't. It is very common in lymph nodes (neck, underarms, groin, collarbone), breasts and ovaries.

      It is a closed sac and it may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material.

      In breasts for example, the cysts are called fibrous. Fibrous cysts don't turn into cancer - but there is a risk that a cancerous tumor could be misdiagnosed as a cyst

    What does it mean to have a floating tumor in the bladder?
    A family friend (62 year old male) noticed blood in his urine, and a matter of weeks after having been told to cease alcohol consumption, he underwent a procedure with a tube inserted up the penis in order to examine the bladder. The doctor explained that he found a floating tumor, and that it is cancerous. He is scheduled to have surgery next week to remove the tumor.

    I've been trying to search floating tumors in the bladder, but with no luck to even explain just what a free floating tumor is, and the prognosis of such. My initial assumption was that free floating masses would be considered cysts, and that tumors likely attach themselves (or grow attached) to tissue. If that were the case, I'm assuming the prognosis would be better in that the tumor is not spreading if attached to tissue. But...these are just my uneducated guesses based off of the connotation of a "floating" tumor.

    It was also found that he has a lesion in his bladder, that he must undergo a second surgery for.

    Any insight or advice into the prognosis and meaning of either of these diagnoses would be greatly appreciated.

    Thank You in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      There is no such thing as a free floating tumor.
      Using the term of floating tumor is rather unusual and I have never heard of a doctor using that term and I was married to a urologist. It may be a regional thing. I am in California.
      What I believe he means is that it is a tumor on a stalk. I come to this conclusion based on the fact that much of the tumor would be floating in the bladder with just a small part tethered to the wall. These types are generally the easiest to remove. The other type is called sessile tumors and these are broad based and flat.
      Blood in the urine occurs in over 95% of patients with bladder cancer and it usually occurs early on, for this reason 75% are caught when they are superficial. However, 75% of them also recur and it is not u usual for them to recur as early as a year later or up to 7-10 years later. Unlike most other cancers when bladder cancers recur it does not mean it has spread, but he will have to go through the whole process again. He will likely be fine so long as he is diligent with his follow up and if he sees his doctor at the first sign of a problem. I have seen many bladder cancer patients survive 15-20 years with recurrent bladder cancers.

    How do I get rid of this mole?
    I have a light, yellow mole on the center of my forhead. I don't know if I should get rid of it or what else. And are they usually considered unattractive?

    • ANSWER:
      Hey Mike

      Here is the remedy to heal your condition.

      Warts & Moles

      Warts and moles are usually the result of a nutritional deficiency and they should be treated internally, as well as externally.

      Potassium deficiency.

      Herbal Aids
      1.Sassafras for Warts: Mix the oil (undiluted) with a thick sugar syrup and apply to the affected part.

      2.Tormentil for Warts: Apply the decoction as a fomentation, wrap with plastic bandage; when nearly dry, renew the application. Also drink the decoction internally.

      3.General Information for Warts and Moles: The warts, moles and skin blemishes are helped externally and are often cleared up by using the white milk from dandelions and/or from milkweed. Applying castor oil or garlic oil to the area several times a day and taping a piece of gauze soaked with this oil over the wart during the night will aid in clearing the condition. The use of a clove of garlic cut in half (or mashed or grated) and kept over the wart all night until it is gone has aided many. Black walnut tincture and the following combination tincture have been used with such success that a number of people swear by them. The combination tinctures consists of blue vervain, black cohosh, blue cohosh, skullcap and lobelia herbs in equal parts, using 90 proof or stronger alcohol as a base.

      4.More General Information for Warts and Moles: Use the mucusless diet and add plenty of raw carrots, kelp, dulse, or sea weed and onions to the diet.

      5.Dr. Christopher's Black Ointment--an excellent drawing ointment for warts: For use externally on old ulcers, tumors, boils, warts, skin cancers, hemorrhoids, excellent for burns and as a healing agent. This is made with chaparral, comfrey, red clover blossoms, pine tar, mullein, beeswax, plantain, olive oil, mutton tallow, chickweed, poke root.

      6.Aloe Vera for Warts: It has been used help remove warts, the juice of the fresh leaf being applied daily over a period of weeks until the wart is reduced or removed.

      7.Onions for Warts: Warts have been said to disappear when treated perseveringly with raw onion dipped in salt.

      8.Wild Lettuce for Warts: The expressed juice is "much regarded as an application to boils, abscesses and carbuncles, and if put upon warts will cause them to drop off.

      9.Garlic for Warts and Moles: Here is a very successful routine for removal of these unwanted growths called moles, or warts. Take a button of garlic, slice or cut in two, and placed the cup area over a wart of mole. Tape it on, and as it dries out put a fresh piece. Many users have reported good results.

      10.Cashew Oil: The cashew oil, which must be used with great caution, is used as an application to warts, corns, ringworms, cancerous ulcers.

      11.Potassium Deficiency for Warts and Moles: When cysts or tumors grow in places where they can be seen outside the body, often we react by having them cut out. This defeats healing by working on the effect instead of the cause. You can cut cysts out, tumors off, and burn warts off (which are also a potassium deficiency), or get rid of as many moles as you wish, but unless you go to the cause, they will grow back again, and you may end up with as many or more cysts, tumors, moles as before. Different signs of potassium deficiency will keep popping out on the body because the condition that needs correcting is on the inside. You have to go into the cause, Dr. Christopher always insisted, which is the way we have been eating.Potassium sources: There are several ways to receive your potassium. Dr. Bernard Jensen sells a potassium broth made from dehydrated vegetables. Dr. Bronner makes a similar, excellent product. You can also make your own potassium broth by simmering equal parts of red potatoes, celery, carrots, onions, and herbs to taste. Raw vegetable and fruit juices also flood the system with potassium.

      Best of health to you


    !What causes Breast Cancer and how can you get rid of it or fight it?
    I think my aunty has breast cancer because I heard them talking and looking at breast cancer things on the net.....
    so I am worried so I wanted to know what can you do to get rid of it and how do you get breast cancer basically everything!!
    Thank you oh soo much!
    Thank you guys so far!
    Samixann what do you mean you best friend lost her mum to breast cancer??
    Did she die?

    • ANSWER:
      What is breast cancer?

      Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and can then invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors. However, some tumors are not really cancer because they cannot spread or threaten someone's life. These are called benign tumors. The tumors that can spread throughout the body or invade nearby tissues are considered cancer and are called malignant tumors. Theoretically, any of the types of tissue in the breast can form a cancer, but usually it comes from either the ducts or the glands. Because it may take months to years for a tumor to get large enough to feel in the breast, we screen for tumors with mammograms, which can sometimes see disease before we can feel it.


      What are the signs of breast cancer?

      Unfortunately, the early stages of breast cancer may not have any symptoms. This is why it is important to follow screening recommendations. As a tumor grows in size, it can produce a variety of symptoms including:

      * lump or thickening in the breast or underarm
      * change in size or shape of the breast
      * nipple discharge or nipple turning inward
      * redness or scaling of the skin or nipple
      * ridges or pitting of the breast skin

      If you experience these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean you have breast cancer, but you need to be examined by a doctor.
      How is breast cancer diagnosed and staged?

      Once a patient has symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer or an abnormal screening mammogram, they will usually be referred for a diagnostic mammogram. A diagnostic mammogram is another set of x-rays; however, it is more complete with close ups on the suspicious areas. Sometimes, particularly if your doctors think that you may have a cyst or you are young and have dense breasts, you may be referred for an ultrasound. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to outline the suspicious areas of the breast. It is painless and can often distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

      Depending on the results of the mammograms and/or ultrasounds, your doctors may recommend that you get a biopsy. A biopsy is the only way to know for sure if you have cancer, because it allows your doctors to get cells that can be examined under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies; they differ on how much tissue is removed. Some biopsies use a very fine needle, while others use thicker needles or even require a small surgical procedure to remove more tissue. Your team of doctors will decide which type of biopsy you need depending on your particular breast mass.

      Once the tissue is removed, a doctor known as a pathologist will review the specimen. The pathologist can tell if it is cancer or not; and if it is cancerous, then the pathologist will characterize it by what type of tissue it arose from, how abnormal it looks (known as the grade), whether or not it is invading surrounding tissues, and if the entire lump was excised, the pathologist can tell if there are any cancer cells left at the borders (also known as the margins). The pathologist will also test the cancer cells for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as a receptor known as

      HER-2/neu. The presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors is important because cancers that have those receptors can be treated with hormonal therapies. HER-2/neu expression may also help predict outcome. There are also some therapies directed specifically at tumors dependent on the presence of HER-2/nue. See Understanding Your Pathology Report for more information.

      In order to guide treatment and offer some insight into prognosis, breast cancer is staged into five different groups. This staging is done in a limited fashion before surgery taking into account the size of the tumor on mammogram and any evidence of spread to other organs that is picked up with other imaging modalities; and it is done definitively after a surgical procedure that removes lymph nodes and allows a pathologist to examine them for signs of cancer. The staging system is somewhat complex, but here is a simplified version of it:
      Stage 0 (called carcinoma in situ)

      Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a gland in the breast. This is a risk factor for the future development of cancer, but this is not felt to represent a cancer itself.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a duct. Women with DCIS have an increased risk of getting invasive breast cancer in that breast. Treatment options are similar to patients with Stage I breast cancers.

      Stage I: early stage breast cancer where the tumor is less that 2 cm across and hasn't spread beyond the breast

      Stage II : early stage breast cancer where the tumor is either less than 2 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the tumor is between 2 and 5 cm (with or without spread to the lymph nodes under the arm); or the tumor is greater than 5 cm and hasn't spread outside the breast

      Stage III: locally advanced breast cancer where the tumor is greater than 5 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes; or the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone or to other tissues near the breast

      Stage IV: metastatic breast cancer where the cancer has spread outside the breast to other organs in the body

      Depending on the stage of your cancer, your doctor may want additional tests to see if you have metastatic disease. If you have a stage III cancer, you will probably get a chest x-ray, CT scan and bone scan to look for metastases. Each patient is an individual and your doctors will decide what is necessary to adequately stage your cancer.

    how does a cancer lump feels like?
    and what part of the body does people usually get it?
    got some new questions;

    is it tender and does it hurt?

    and does it get bigger and bigger?
    how big is it?

    • ANSWER:
      Every person should learn what is normal or adnormal about their own bodies in order to recognize when something is not quite right. This includes any type of lump or bump growing inside or outside of the body. The bump/lump can be located anywhere . . . one way to narrow down the concern is to consider your age . . cancer types often appear more commonly in certain age groups. If you are a teen or young adult there are certain types of cancer you should know about that includes an unusual lump or bump . . this type of cancer is called a sarcoma and can arise in the soft tissue of the body or the bones . . in particular muscles, joints, tendons, blood vessels, ligaments, fat, and soft tissue located anywhere on the body . . this age group should examine themselves regularly . . look for an unexplained lump or bump that seems to be growing . . and have it examined as soon as possible if you have any question. You can ask your doctor about sarcoma but unfortunately most regular physicians dismiss your concern . .and sarcoma is often misdiagnosed in this age group. You may need to be persistent in order to be heard . . many people will dismiss this as rare or over reacting . .but this type of cancer is often swift and deadly and it is far better to be cautious than to continually ignore the one warning sign you may ever have. Other types of cancer a young person should look out for include . . germ cell tumors (ovarian or testicular); certain kinds of brain tumors; Lymphoma (Hodgkins and NH); Leukemia; and most recently . . studies have indicated that the misdiagnosis and delay of treatments is a factor in the high mortality rate of teens and young adults with cancer.

      NCI: Improvements needed for adolescents and young adults with cancer

      Lumps are usually painless . . but not always . . it depends on their location and the type of cancer . . but usually they are hard, painless, and most importantly seem to be growing. Tumors can be tiny (around 1-2cm) when detected or they can be enormous (my son had multiple tumors, some over 21cm) . . . they can grow slowly or extremely fast . . you will not know if you are dealing with a benign or malignant tumor so it is always best to be examined by a doctor and if in any doubt insist on biopsy to determine status. I would never leave any type of cyst, tumor, or unknown fatty lump in the body . . if possible have it removed or at least closely monitored for any type of cancerous activity. (My son died because he was considered too healthy and too young and his cancer to be too rare for him to ever get it . . . . it wasn't until he had multiple tumors, some the size of a volley ball that anyone knew he had cancer.) Don't wait.

    my dog has a pimple on its chest what could it be?
    my dog is 2 about 30 lbs and has like this pimple on his chest and lets me touch it and its not bothering him but wut could it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Normally occurring around the neck, head, or chest area of a dog, Lipomas, are just fat deposits under the skin. They are very common and usually present no problems.

      We honestly can't know what that lump is truly without studying it and examine some cells under the microscope to be 100% sure.

      However, rub your hand right over the small, round, soft mass under the skin, if it doesn't annoy him or is slightly moveable, then it's most likely Lipomas. These soft, rounded, non-painful masses, usually present just under the skin but occasionally arising from connective tissues deep between muscles. They will stay in one place, not invade surrounding tissues and do no metastasize to other areas of the body. They grow to a certain size and just sit there in the tissues and behave themselves.

      Most lipomas do not have to be removed and will be ignored by the dog. Unless it continues to grow into huge fat deposits that becomes a discomfort to the dog and present a surgical challenge to remove.

      Only remove them if they are growing rapidly or are located in a sensitive area.

      Other options:

      An invasive form called an infiltrative lipoma, this spreads through the body. When a nasty looking, reddened, rapidly growing mass is detected growing on the gum aggressive action is indicated.

      Some superficial bumps are due simply to plugged oil glands in the skin, called sebaceous cysts. Skin cysts can be composed of dead cells or even sweat or clear fluid; these often rupture on their own, heal, and are never seen again. Most humans call these dog pimples, that's semi-correct. Dogs can get an acne-like skin condition that occurs around the chin and face from eating and drinking or sniffing around in dirt, which may resemble pimples, but they are not actually considered to be pimples - in bad breakout cases a vet might prescribe a mild steroid cream.

      Non-cancerous lumps - Cysts, warts, infected hair follicles, hematomas (blood blisters) and others do cause concern and can create discomfort for the dog.

      Worst case is it's cancerous / tumor. These might not be perfectly round, and can grow over time to very large sizes.

      Just check the shape, size, and growth of it over time to be sure. However there should be no concern for alarm as it's not large or bothering him even on touch, this happens to lots of dogs.

    What could spots on the liver be?
    My best friend is distraught because her sister had stage 4 melanoma last year. She was treated and things were going well. Well she found a cyst on her wrist and went to get checked again. Due to her history the doctor ordered a CT scan. In the scan they found spots on her liver and now are moving to an MRI. The MRI will be preformed tonight. My friend is worried it is liver cancer. That the melanoma spread. Could it be nothing? What other things will show up as spots on someones liver other than cancer? Just a little more information....The skin cancer was thought to be caused by excessive tanning. Her sister tanned all the time when she was younger and there is no family history of cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 4 disease is metastatic cancer . . what that means is that the cancer advanced or progressed enough to begin 'shedding' hundreds and hundreds of microscopic cancer cells into the blood stream or lymphatic system . . cells that can than lodge anywhere in the body . in multiple places and begin a whole new colony of cancer cells. The most common places that the mets (metastatic cells) lodge are the liver, the lungs, the brain, or the bones but it can be anyplace including the wrist. It is metastatic cancer that is the most difficult to treat successfully because it can hide behind structures or lay dormant in the body for an undetermined amount of time. The worst thing about metastatic cancer is that those hundreds of met cells can all start to grow at the same time and within weeks or months the body is 'filled with cancer' . . that is what people mean when they say there is 'nothing more that can be done because the cancer has relapsed and all those hundreds of mets are now growing at the same rapid rate).

      There are benign conditions that can pop up on a CT . . but in general a radiologist or oncologist will look at it and recognize that it is not a cancerous lesion . .so they would not order an MRI. In your friends case the doctor is not sure what has happened but he probably suspects that it is the cancer that has relapsed . .he won't say that though until he can make a confirmation. Hopefully he is wrong and this will turn out to be nothing. My son too had spots in his liver, but those particular spots turned out to be nothing cancerous . . . unfortunately his cancer relapsed on the dome of the liver and spred via the diaphragm as well as into the pelvis. We were not able to stop the progression of disease and lost him last year.

      No one really knows what causes cancer . . even though it is suspected that sun tanning places one at risk . . some melanoma occurs in spots that never see the sun shine (vaginal) . . so melanoma can happen with or without sun exposure.

      Hope your friend hears good news and that the spots are nothing . . if it turns out to be disease she might want to consider a treatment called Radiofrequency Ablation which can target each tumor inside the liver and 'ablate' or disintegrate it. I know one young man who was able to use RFA for his liver tumors successfully. There is some strict criteria though as not every patient is eligible for this type of treatment.


    I would like to is cancer detected? though your mri..or how do they find runs hard though my family alot of people in my family have died from i just wanted to know...and they only find out... if you have like cancerous brain tumors or confused plz help! nd plz no b.s answers..its a concern of mine,

    • ANSWER:
      OK, I'm not a doctor, I'm not a scientist - I'm a patient. I was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma last January (in remission since April). All I have to offer is my story.

      When I first noticed something was wrong, I worked as a waitress and thought I pulled a muscle in my side from lifting too heavy of a stack of plate-ware. It would be so horrible some days, my husband would come home from work and find me in the fetal position - other days I didn't feel it at all. Another symptom I experience was random vomiting without feeling nauseous. It would just be like...ok, I'm fine...holy crap, run to the bathroom...blahhhhhh! I actually puked on my cat one time (extensive, but funny story that I will tell if asked).

      One of my co-workers suggested that I might have a cyst on my ovary or maybe a hernia, so I went to the OB-Gyn, got an ultra-sound, and they couldn't see anything wrong. They passed my on to my General Practitioner, who only gave me a prescription for Vicodin, and passed me on to a surgeon.

      The surgeon said, well let's cut you open and take a look. He did exploratory surgery on my and found a mass the size of a lemon hiding between my colon and small intestine and behind my liver and right ovary. That's why they didn't find it on x-rays or the ultra-sound, even as large as it was.

      They removed it and took out an addition 4lbs of my internal organs, which they put part of under a microscope and realized it was blood cancer.

      I've had numerous CAT scans, 2 PET scans, a ton of blood work (I now have a "place needle here" mark on my arm), an MRI, a colonoscopy, and a million other tests. It took a long time and many doctors to figure out that I had cancer, so it's really difficult to find the cancer sometimes and there is no single test that can determine all the different types of cancer.

      My family also has a heavy history of cancer - on both sides of my family. I lost my maternal grandmother and my maternal aunt to breast cancer. My mother was a breast cancer survivor, but it compromised her immune system, so she passed away not of cancer, but of something her system didn't have the strength to fight off, I lost my paternal cousin to stomach cancer last summer, I lost my paternal uncle to Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and I now am a patient myself. I call myself still a patient only because I've only been in remission for 6 months, so there's still no indication that they got it all or if it will come back. Most people gauge it that someone is in remission for 5 years to be considered a survivor.

      Continue getting check-ups. Continue asking questions. Continue eating healthy and exercising. Don't smoke. Those suggestions can't guarantee that you won't get cancer, but it can't hurt.

    Could I be pregnant? Advice please!!?
    I don't really want to stress over it as I know I could be over thinking.. I usually have a period every 2 weeks and it's been like this for the last 2 or so years, they are short periods 3-4 days.. But the last time I had a period was the 3rd week into February, I usually get small cramps before I'm about to come on and I had a few pains a few days ago but nothing since and no period, I've been eating a lot, I always do but more than usual and my right boob is really sore and tender.. Could I be?

    • ANSWER:
      Having period every 2weeks? is very abnormal?

      This makes the chances of pregnancy here 50/50 and the chances of not being pregnant outweighs that of being pregnant because having a period every 2weeks or twice a month is an indication of an abnormal cycle or an irregular cycle. The menstrual period lasts between 2-7 days, usually occurring once every 28 days, although anything from once every 24 days(few have 21days) to once every 35 days is considered normal. If you are having a period more than once every 24 days, it is considered an irregular cycle. Having a period once every two weeks, or twice a month is abnormal and you should see your doctor because you may become anemic if you are having very frequent periods. They are sometimes a sign of infection or other medical problem that would need treatment.

      Periods that are too frequent (more often than every 28 days also called "metrorrhagia") can be related to several predisposing factors:-->
      --Dramatic weight loss or gain -- This changes the hormones in the body and these are responsible for directing when the period will start.
      --Excessive exercise -- This too disrupts hormones.
      --Stress -- Exams, family argument, financial worries, divorce, even a holiday can cause a temporary change in your menstrual cycle.
      --Illness and/or medications -- Some medications can affect your cycle. Talk to your doctor about altering or stopping your medication if you think this is happening.
      --Uterine problems such as polyps, cysts, fibroids or tumors (either benign or cancerous).
      --Sexually transmitted infections -- These can cause bleeding in between periods which can be mistaken for a period.
      --Thyroid problems -- Thyroid disease could cause a thickening of the uterine lining, resulting in more bleeding than normal.
      --Reactions to contraceptive methods -- Sometimes the pill, depo provera injections or the copper-only IUD can result in a change in your cycle. The pill and IUD can make you bleed in between periods, known as "breakthrough bleeding" and this may be mistaken for a period. The IUD can also make your periods heavier. The depo-provera injection can make your cycle irregular, however, it often stops your period altogether instead of making it more frequent.

      So with the above mentioned I think you should be on your heels to the hospital for a possible medical chek up because nothing sound normal here. Do this ASAP. You can be tested for pregnancy at the doctors, but first things first, don't neglect this. Best wishes!!!

    What are some common genetic mutations?
    I know red hair is one, but what else?

    • ANSWER:
      i don't think red hair is. i'm pretty sure it's just a variation on brown, like how green eyes are a version of brown eyes (a common dominant trait). which if it is a variation on brown hair it would explain why i am a brunette yet i have serious orange undertones (like i look like a redhead in bright sunlight).

      some common mutations:
      not a specific one, but in the BRCA1/2 genes -- they can cause various cancers (breast, ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, male breast cancer, prostate cancer, a couple others that i can't think of at the moment).
      polydactyly -- extra digits. not very harmful, and not really a problem (some doctors will tell parents an extra digit doesn't need to be removed because it's just chillin' and isn't causing any problems so why go through surgery if you don't need to?)
      a polymorphism is a location on a chromosome where a mutation is likely to occur, but doesn't cause any known phenotypic change/problem. (genotypically, the cell is mutated, but phenotypically there is no disease caused, no appearance changes, etc.)
      cancer of any sort -- some cancers are caused by telomerase being activated so the cells live forever and just keep dividing uncontrollably.
      thymidine dimers -- UV radiation causes thymine nucleotides next to each other in the DNA strand to fuse together. if they are not excised and fixed, they cause a problem during DNA replication leading to some problem or another (depending on where the mutation is located) and then skin cancer develops.
      melanoma is a specific skin cancer, which (if i remember correctly), is where the thymidine dimer is in the gene for melanin (the skin pigment), and when the dimer isn't fixed then too much melanin is produced (which is why you get tan), but in just the wrong place you also get the uncontrolled cell growth, which is the cause of the growth of moles on people in various places (armpits, legs, ears, neck, back, arms, etc.) moles are often normal and benign (i have a really small one actually), but they can sometimes (and not too uncommonly) be malignant and cancerous (one of my dad's cousins had to have a mole removed because it was actually a skin cancer tumor)
      a certain mutation renders an individual incapable of digesting a certain amino acid (phenylketoneuria is the name) and so foods containing it must be avoided.
      there is a certain gene called follstatin that has a mutation of sorts in it which is considered a main cause of polycystic ovaries syndrome (not the specific cause of the disease, but it is a key component of the condition). it prevents normal maturation of the egg follicle in the ovary and causes a cyst to develop (rather than an egg being released), and so the ovary becomes quite calloused from much scar tissue.
      i don't know the specific mutations themselves, but some diseases caused by mutations:
      fragile X
      beckwith syndrome
      duchenne muscular dystrophy (mutation in the dystrophin gene leads to lack of dystrophin production which is critical in muscle regeneration)
      cystic fibrosis
      prader-willi syndrome
      achondroplasia (aka dwarfism)
      primordial dwarfism (the people are only up to about 2'6")
      HNPCC (a type of hereditary colon cancer--hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer)
      crohn's disease
      some forms of deafness are genetic
      alzheimer's may be genetic
      marfan syndrome
      progeria (severe and fast aging disease)
      retinoblastoma (a type of childhood eye cancer)
      xeroderma pigmentosum (lack exonucleases, so can't do DNA repair, so can't go out in the sun because cancer is much easier and much more likely to develop...the thymidine dimers can't be repaired)
      severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

      NOT mutations:
      down syndrome -- caused by an entire extra chromosome, not just a change in one
      red hair -- again, i'm pretty sure it's just a variation of brown.

      google it and see what you find. you might want to try looking at the genome map at the NIH website. it tells you all the genes they know about so far and what the gene product is. because i'm sure you've had enough of my answer by now. :)

    MY cat has lumps under his skin on BOTH side, ACROSS FROM EACH OTHER NEAR his spine at the lower part of his back just above his tail, maybe two on each side. HE ACTS NORMAL, EATS, PLAYS, JUMPS AROUND. WHAT COULD IT BE AND I AM GOING TO TAKE HIM TO THE VET, BUT SCARED!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      it could be one of the listed below:
      There are all sorts of things that could be a bump on a kitty, and most are cause for concern.

      Some common things that cause bumps are:

      Abscesses - pockets of infection under the skin, often caused by a bite wound. These can lead to deadly infection of the heart, kidneys or liver.

      Cysts - filled with fluid or a waxy substance called sebum. Usually caused by a scratch or an ingrown hair. Not considered dangerous in themselves, but they are prone to infection, which is dangerous.

      Swollen glands - a sign of infection or cancer.

      Bot fly larvae - this is a worm that grows under the skin and feeds on blood and tissue. It's an immature fly that will eventually try to back itself out of the skin. But sometimes it grows too big, and if it dies under the skin, it leaks toxins into the cat's bloodstream. If it DOES back out, the wound is prone to infection. It is, however, quite late in the year to be seeing a bot fly larva.

      Tumors - cancerous growths. Some may be removed surgically. Tumors can be the first sign of cancer. As the cancer grows, you will notice weight loss, as the cancer uses lots of nutrients to grow. Cancer often spreads to the lymph nodes and crops up in other organs. At this point, many cats start losing their appetite, as organ failure sets in. Jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and changes in the appearance of the eyes are signs that cancer has spread throughout the body.

    Bone pain, with a lot of periosteal reaction?
    A year ago, I got my first stress fracture in one of my metatarsals. Over the next six months, I got a couple more stress fractures in each foot. Each diagnosed with x-rays. They have healed. In December, I had a bone density test done and it was -1.5, which is low and called osteopenia. I am a 22 year old female. In December, I also started having hip pain, more so on one side, but both do hurt and lower leg pain. I went to physical therapy for both of those, without help. I have seen a sports medicine doctor, who did an x-ray on my hip and an mri on my leg, both showed stress fractures and both showed periosteal reaction. I also saw an orthopedic surgeon who didn't do anything. I have seen an endocrinologist who diagnosed me with a low thyroid. I have had CBCs and other blood work, and so far they have found nothing. I had a c/t scan done due to excessive menstrual bleeding and they did find a mildly complex kidney cyst measuring 14 mm with some walls and septi and on that c/t they also found another little mass in my liver and an umbilical hernia. I have severe bone pain everyday. I am not getting answers. I keep thinking I'm crazy, but I can't be because there is proof with periosteal reaction. But why? When I research it, periosteal reaction comes up with a whole lot of cancers. One even associated with renal tumors, but is that really a renal tumor? It could be cancerous, my appointment is Wednesday with the urologist, but my regular nurse practioner said likely not. I just can't take the bone pain anymore. I've had a cold and cough for about a month as well, and I feel like a hypochondriac for thinking somehow maybe its connected, but something has to be seriously wrong with how I'm feeling in my bones. Any ideas?
    I should also add that I am in no way an "athlete." I do not run, or anything that would be harming my bones.

    • ANSWER:
      Considering your age and that you are in no way suffering from the "female athlete triad", your diagnosis of osteopenia with multiple stress fractures is quite concerning. What often gets missed with Thyroid disorders is actually problems with the parathyroid gland. I would discuss with the endocrinologist wheather having a PTH level is appropriate. Problems with the parathyroid can also be a result of an underlying kidney problem. Considering your cyst, again, I think this is reason to investigate. The parathyroid regulates the level of calcium in your blood. In hyperparathyroidism, it puts too much calcium in your blood by leeching it from your bones...leaving you with osteopenia.

    My period has been very confusing this cycle. What could be the reason?
    I've been on birth control for a year, and my period has always been very regular. I've never been late, even by a day. But this month, it was four days late. Finally, it started. But it was finished after one day! What happened?

    • ANSWER:
      I am a nursing student, but somewhat of a bookworm. I can potentially give a couple of scenarios in which your presenting issue may lie:

      1) Hormones are ever-changing. The source of hormone release begins in the Pituitary Gland or what is commonly referred to as "The Master Gland." It controls all hormones that are released into the body and the rate of release. Changes in nutrition, age, stress levels, lifestyle, etc., can all affect how the body systems operate. If one or more of the above have been altered in a significant way, it could in my terms, "Tinker with your body's response."

      2) Every female beyond the age of menses should have regular PAP screenings and pelvic exams. If you have recently received the HPV vaccination, you should be monitored by your health professional as it is a very new development, though I think a good one in theory. When was the last date of your examination? If cost is an issue, call your local health department; they will be able to send you to a facility(if they in fact don't perform these in-house) for the least monetary costs.

      3) As I stated I am a nursing student, and one who recently had a hysterectomy, retaining one ovary due to fibroid(non-cancerous, but EXTREMELY painful) tumors. I am in my thirties, and I do not know your age, lifestyle, or any pertinent information to give you a loose nursing opinion. I can't diagnose, as I am not licensed nor do I feel comfortable enough in my scope of practice to do so. That said, the most common "aches, pains, and problems" I have heard of across the board, are: ovarian cysts, HPV, fibriods, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, dysplasia, and some others. Depending on age, lifestyle, diet, activity, stress levels, family history, and "random acts of God--kind of like getting lightening struck when you didn't even know it was going to rain," it could fall into one of those categories.

      If it were me, and I was heavily concerned, in pain, of a young age, considered my family history and all of the rest, PLEASE, PLEASE, check with your medical provider. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, and conditions are ALWAYS easiest to manage in their early stages. Do not play with your health; you have one life, use it well and take care of yourself, so that you will be around to help someone else(as I have hopefully) helped you today. Don't be a monkey, and monkey around with something unless your are darn sure you know what you are doing!!

      Peace, Good Health, and Long Life Wishes To You!

    Is she pretending to have cancer?
    Hi I know this is going to make me sound like a horrible person but it is driving me insane. My sister has a long history of compulsive lying. She steals off family members and basically no one trusts her. A bit of background she is 39 and does have a form of muscular dystrophy which has meant she has been in and out of hospital all her life. This form is not life threatening but painful and debilitating none the less.
    Even when we were kids it was hard to trust "K" she used to lie about everything and steal and sadly that hasn t changed with age.
    Anyway her first cancer scare was 2001 when she had breast cancer, she told us they found a lump I know she did have a biopsy but then it gets weird. She did oral chemo at home, never lost any hair and wasn t sick, in fact she ate like a horse during this time. She did not have radiation or have I ever seen a scar or dint where she was supposed to have had the lumpectomy. (I m asking anyone that knows is this all normal or does it sound a bit strange)
    Ok second cancer said she found a lump under her arm in 2007 and was diagnosed with Hodgkin s lymphoma. Again no radiation and claims of chemo but no hair loss or sickness.
    This week she found a lump on her arm between the wrist and elbow and went to the doctor who she said did a needle biopsy but said it was inconclusive but was pretty sure it was cancer. Is it just me or does all this seem too strange. She claims to be cured of both breast cancer and Hodgkin s lymphoma. The strangest thing about all these things is that each cancer coincides with something she wanted. My grandfather died a few months before the breast cancer and she was living rent free in his home and my parents were going to put it on the market but suddenly they couldn t because she lived there and was sick. 2nd time my mother died and two weeks later she had cancer again and she kept saying mom wanted her to have her brand new car when she died. (My dad didn t give in to her) Now this time she has just been caught out in a huge lie by another family member and half the family aren t talking to her and it almost feels like this is her way of getting them back on side.
    I probably sound like the most horrible sister in the world but I have many reasons to distrust her things like when my son died and she stole money off us the day of his funeral.
    I would welcome any advice but please don t flame me I m honestly not a horrible person I just need to sort this out all these scares are killing my elderly father.
    Wayne I should add I moved half way across the country many years ago. There is no outward fighting I never confronted her about the stealing or anything. The only reason I want to get to the bottom of it is for my fathers sake, he is beside himself thinking she is going to die and if she really is sick I do want to help her and if she is not then I want to get her the psyciatric help that she needs. Im not asking to catch her out.
    Wayne I should add I moved half way across the country many years ago. There is no outward fighting I never confronted her about the stealing or anything. The only reason I want to get to the bottom of it is for my fathers sake, he is beside himself thinking she is going to die and if she really is sick I do want to help her and if she is not then I want to get her the psyciatric help that she needs. Im not asking to catch her out.

    • ANSWER:
      It's impossible for us to know whether she's pretending to have cancer to manipulate her family members and gain attention for herself, or if she truly is ill. I do find it difficult to believe that she would have had breast cancer in 2001 if she's only 39 years old now, but of course I can't say for certain that she didn't. Though younger women do get breast cancer, it's exceptionally rare for anyone in their 20s to have it as your sister would have been at that time. Even at 39 she'd be young. There's a specific type of breast cancer called triple-negative breast cancer that primarily affects women under the age of 45, but the treatment for it is typically quite aggressive.

      It's far more believable that she'd have Hodgkin's Lymphoma since it predominantly affects adolescents and young adults under the age of 40. Considering that she's experienced health problems most of her life it's very possible that she has a compromised immune system from the medications she's taken, the trips in and out of the hospital where she'd be exposed to more viruses like Epstein Barr, and the muscular dystrophy herself and that would make her more vulnerable to this type of cancer. *If* she did have breast cancer in '01 then that certainly would have delivered a roundhouse kick to her immune system. When Hodgkin's Lymphoma is caught early on and the disease hasn't progressed the treatment options are a bit gentler. If she had Hodgkin's Lymphoma in 07 and was staged at 1A (meaning the cancer was isolated to one area and she was asymptomatic) surgery to remove the cancerous lump might have been sufficient, though this is a bit unusual. Most often people with early-stage lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma often undergo radiation therapy alone without the need for chemotherapy. Though radiation therapy does have side effects, they aren't usually as severe as chemotherapy, and they wouldn't make you as sick or cause hair loss. That part of her story sort of checks out. Hodgkin's Lymphoma has an extremely high survival rate, and after five years of having NED (no evidence of disease) you're essentially considered "cured." Unfortunately, once you had HL you are far more likely to have secondary types of cancer or other health problems later in life, but if her's was at an early stage and didn't have chemo then she'd be less predisposed.

      It's totally bizarre that a reputable doctor would do a needle biopsy on the lump on her arm and then say that the results were inconclusive, and yet he / she was "pretty sure" it was cancer. Most doctors don't make their patients jump through emotional rings of fire by leading them to believe they have a serious illness when the results haven't concluded that they actually do. It seems like her doctor would have simply had her undergo more tests to determine the cause of the lump. It's far more likely that the lump is actually a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (noncancerous but painful) and inclusion cyst or something else that actually does need medical attention but isn't cancerous. I do understand why your sister might be more pessimistic about her health and leap to the conclusion that she has cancer
      any time a lump was found.

      So, in conclusion, I don't have a true conclusion for you. I would encourage your sister to try to be hopeful about her health and not worry your father too extensively until a proper diagnosis is given. Once she has the diagnosis if it does indicate that it's cancer, ask her for the specifics such as the type, the staging, the treatment options, and the hospital / facility where she'll get her care. Don't ask in an interrogating manner; simply explain that knowing more about her health will help you to better understand what she's going through. If she truly is sick then I think your father would also feel more at peace if he knew the details of her plan to get quality treatment. Just telling him that his daughter might have cancer and not giving him any way direction to face for it would unnecessarily stress him.

      You can't control the actions of your sister's, so just do your best to navigate your way around them without being sucked too far into them. If she's making everything up then yes, she does need psychiatric help, but you can't force her to get it. Extend compassion to her and do your best to support your dad regardless as to what happens.

      ~ skylark

    I have a lump on the lower right side of my neck that hurts, especially when I press it (continued..)?
    Also the back of my neck hurts as well, as if it was strained. I would think it is a pulled muscle (I do vigorous excersize 4 times a week), but I am concerned because of the lump and how painful it is. Does anyone know what this could be?
    It is almost in front of my throat and very swollen.

    • ANSWER:
      First off - I'm not a doctor, just a guy who has had a lot of lumpy tumors removed.

      The lump could be a number of things: lipomas are very common and almost always benign (non-cancerous). These are fatty tumors that occur for some reason. They don't cause any harm other than being unsightly or if they are rubbing on a nerve or muscle, etc.

      Another possibility is a sebaceous cyst - they are different from lipomas, usually not painful but commonly occur on the neck, face, etc. I had one removed from my back.

      Removal of both of these is relatively painless. You get a little shot of lidocaine which will completely numb the area and they will cut it out. It sounds gross but it's a simple procedure and far less painful in my experience than having a cavity filled.

      Of course there is the possibility that it is something else. I strongly recommend that you see a doctor because: 1) if it's either of the things listed above it will likely grow and you'll eventually have to have it removed. The longer you wait, the bigger it gets and the bigger the scar or indent in your skin. 2) Most importantly, it may be something more serious - catching it early gives you a great chance of taking care of it with minimal problems. 3) It could be a strained muscle that is knotted up. A steroid injection, massage, or mint oil might be just what the doc prescribes :) ---- get it checked out though.

      If money is an issue, consider going to a walk-in clinic. Call first because they will only have certain docs that will perform the procedure. To save money it is better to schedule the removal of it the same day it is examined rather than paying for two visits (and the pathology lab work). If you have insurance - call right away and see your doc. They will still probably send it to the lab just to be sure it's nothing dangerous. This always cost a bit more.

      I've posted a couple of links below describing more about the lipomas and cysts. I've had a lot of lipomas removed and 1 cyst and it doesn't hurt except for the first shot and it's a good feeling to get it taken care of.

      I wish you all the best.

    EXTREMELY HEAVY BLEEDING on my period. huge blood clots...going on eight days...?
    For eight days or so I have had horrible horrible cramping and bleeding. Im worried Im losing to much blood. I can litterally sit on the toilet and it comes out. I only have a period like three times a year but I have never been through anything like this. I took the Depo Shot in Nov. But havnt had any problems. Tell me if this is normal.. I have been through 1 1/2 boxes of regular tampons (i completely soaked through one in 10 mins) A box of 8 super tampons.. And Starting on my second box of super plus tampons with 18 in them. and now Im wearing pads and tampons to control the bleeding. I figured the 7th day it would slow down but it hasnt slowed down at all and isnt acting like it wants to. Is there something wrong with me? could it be something serious? Im 18 no insurance and Im getting scared.
    this was my ? I asked a about four days ago and some of the answers and a little more input of whats been going on.;_ylt=ApCAnhp.IYIXto_.3Fec4lrsy6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20091221214636AAa2VBP

    • ANSWER:
      You need to see a gynecologist. It may be from the shot and your hormones may be messed up but anytime someone goes through things within and hour it's considered menorrhagia. When you see the doctor don't just say you have heavy bleeding because that's a general term. You have to tell him/her how many supplies you go through. Until I did my doctor didn't look into what could be causing it. I had a pre-op diagnosis of fibroids and adenomyosis (endometriosis in the uterine muscle). I had 10 day to two weeks of bleeding and couldn't be away from a bathroom more than 20 minutes at a time. The pain was controlled with Tylenol 3 then Vicodin after the pain got worse until my hysterectomy at age 29.

      There are some things that can be done but if you want kids you're kind of limited. Any ablation for heavy bleeding is usually done for women that are finished having kids. A myomectomy can be done to preserve fertility of someone who has fibroids and heavy bleeding from them. It could also be polyps that need to be diagnosed and treated. If there's any chance of pregnancy it may be a miscarriage but either way you should see a doctor. Because you don't have insurance you may save money better by seeing a doctor in an office or going to an urgent care center. An Emergency room will bill minimum of 1,000.00 where I live. Good luck and feel better.

      Edited: I looked at your other post where you said you had black or dark clots. To me when I heard that I was thinking of adenomyosis. With adenomyosis it can cause that but it's usually seen in women who have had a baby. Since you said you have been on the shot I would ask the doctor about it because the shot may make your body think it's pregnant. Here's some more info I dug out of my previous responses that may help you.

      "Adenomyosis-endometriosis in the uterine muscle that can sometimes cause heavy bleeding going through more than one supply within an hour and you may also pass clots. It can only be truly diagnosed after a hysterectomy(removal of the uterus) but an ultrasound may show an appearance of what can look like adenomyosis and on exam the doctor may feel a soft and/or boggy uterus. The uterus may also be enlarged on exam. It can also cause many small clots (I had some about the size of a dime to larger) that are very dark in color like black looking or bigger ones the size of a strawberry, fist, or you get the idea can be a symptom of adenomyosis. You may also have a lot of cramps not just during your period but also may feel bloated and have crampiness other times when you aren't having your period

      Fibroids-not cancerous tumor in the uterus that can be removed or shrunk. They can be diagnosed on ultrasound. If you want to preserve your fertility there's something called a myomectomy. If you don't want any kids they can shrink them with somethings and one I know of is where a dye is injected into the arteries of the uterus and they end up shrinking. Fibroids may be a cause of heavy bleeding or enlarged uterus and if they aren't causing any symptoms or preventing pregnancy usually they are left alone.

      Hormonal imbalances- anything that may not be right even if your ovaries are functioning. Sometimes women who get near menopause may have heavier periods but I'm not exactly sure why."


      M Malformations include bicornate uterus, congenital ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancies, and retained placenta.
      I Inflammation recalls cervicitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease.
      N Neoplasms include fibroids, carcinoma, and polyps of the cervix and endometrium. One should also not forget choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform moles, and hormone-producing tumors of the ovary.
      T Trauma includes perforation of the uterus, excessive intercourse during the menses, and introduction of foreign bodies into the uterus.
      S Systemic diseases include anemia and the coagulation disorders such as hemophilia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and scurvy. Also in this category are lupus erythematosus and endocrine disorders, especially hypothyroidism and dysfunctional uterine bleeding from disproportion in the output of estrogen and progesterone by the ovary.
      Approach to the DiagnosisThe diagnosis includes a thorough pelvic examination, CBC, coagulation studies, thyroid function tests, and perhaps other endocrine tests. Ultrasonography is ordered next. If all these are normal, a trial of estrogen or progesterone supplementation or a dilatation and curettage (D & C) may be indicated. Culdoscopy, peritoneoscopy, and a hysterosalpingogram may be necessary before performing an exploratory laparotomy and, if necessary, a hysterectomy. A gynecologist or endocrinologist will be helpful in solving the diagnostic dilemma in many cases."

      What does it mean if your period lasts for 2 weeks?;_ylt=Avwu.vmuuhUphmRBdS9YMnQjzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20091114131239AA4TE6K

      Is it healthy for a women to clot so much when she has her period?;_ylt=AoAmo.R_57kcNWro3J9VLj8jzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20090123182235AAZjh3n

      (not mine but more info)
      Why does my mom get her period for 2 weeks straight?;_ylt=AgmPKuYQOLKZiSiOm_d9D64jzKIX;_ylv=3?qid=20090613110740AAu8szk

    My son can't cry after brain surgery. He is not depressed and would like to be able to cry. Help!?
    My son had a baseball sized non-cancerous juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma sitting on/bending over his brain stem and causing hydrocephalus. His first surgery (it took two surgeries six months apart to remove the entire tumor) was in June 2012 and he was not able to wake up for five weeks after the surgery. The doctors went through the cerebellum to get to the mid-brain tumor. Because of this, he got Posterior Fossa Syndrome (ataxia, disphagia, etc). He performed his therapies (PT, OT and Speech) very well and with strong determination to get better. His spirits are high (even was voted by Children's Cancer Asso. and JoyRX as one of the "Most Inspirational" kids of Oregon and Southern Washington; he represents Posterior Fossa Syndrome (PFS)). He has some problems with sleeping as well but those problems are slowly improving. He is not normally known to cry easily, but wasn't afraid to do so before the surgery. We have tried our local mental health services but have been turned away as they don't know what to do or won't try. Any ideas that we could consider would help. By the way, his eyes do not tear up, he feels no real symptoms of a person about to cry (no tightness in chest, watering of eyes).
    I am concerned due to strong emotions sometimes bombarding him and he not being able to express that grief.

    • ANSWER:
      It may take some time. I have had a lot of brain surgery in the past because I have something called a arachnoid cyst on my pituitary gland(it controls most of your hormones).It also gave me hydrocephalus. does your son have any shunts. I spent almost a year in the hospital back then having a ton of surgery even having to go back in every so often because the shunts break or get clogged. Like I said it may just take some time. Your sons brain is probably still overcoming a lot of trauma from the surgery and things tend to return to normal after a while. I know all of the surgeries tend to get to you and him. I can remember being in the car going to the hospital as a kid for more surgery and I pretty much just lost it. I was tired of all of the surgery plus I think about my brothers and sisters and they did not even have to deal with all of the stuff I had to deal with. It is not like I wanted them to be sick but as a kid the whole thing just never seems fair. Hope I helped and I hope I did not stray to far off the subject. Kevin

are cyst when a tumor is considered cancerous it is called