treatment or Do you know someone who had a knee replacement? Do you think you need one? Knee replacement may have may involve various knee injury causes but it basically performed to those with knee joint damage. By definition, knee replacement, as a surgical procedure, artificial parts called prostheses, take place the injured parts of the knee.
The knee may just be thought of a small part of the body but it is actually the largest joint every human being has. Its very functional as it joins the leg and the thigh. Since mostly of a humans weight is supported by the knee, it has become very prone to injuries. But when can we say that one already needs a knee replacement? Who can be candidates of knee replacement?
Knee replacement is required only when there is knee joint damage involved. One of these entails the knee to be gradually deteriorating. Osteoarthritis usually occurs to elders who have lived for more than 60 years or so. Due to some joint deformity or knee injury, knee replacement should be performed. Another cause of knee joint damage is Rheumatoid Arthritis. Unlike Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis is primarily due to inflamed tissues surrounding the knee joint. In effect, the cartilage and/ other parts of the knee become deteriorated. Unfortunately, the immune system attacks body tissues specifically that of the knee or close to the knee. It may happen not only to adults but to young people as well. The third situation that also calls for a knee replacement is called the Post-traumatic Arthritis. As the term implies, Post-traumatic Arthritis is actually an outcome from a previous knee injury. Each of the causes mentioned above gives an uncomfortable feeling of swelling, pain, and stiffness in the knee joint.
If you think you are experiencing any of the causes and knee joint damage stated above, there may be symptoms that you also may have. The signs include severe pain, injury from arthritic conditions, significant feeling of instability, stiffness, and deformity. These symptoms and signs should serve as a warning for you to take necessary steps to heal your knee. The cure may or may not be knee replacement so you should seek a qualified doctor specializing in knee injuries. It is only the doctor who can evaluate the situation of the knee through a variety of tests, physical examination, and x-ray. The causes, symptoms, and overall case of possible candidates of knee replacement are all important so the doctor can fully assess the knee injury. If you think you are a potential candidate of knee replacement, make sure to disclose all pertinent information involving the knee before and after an accident or injury. Most importantly, if you have any knee discomfort and signs of knee damage, consult a doctor right away to find out if you need a knee replacement, any other not.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do I have PCOS?
Hi there. I am wondering if someone an help me out. I recentlly went to my doc cause I was not getting my periods. She did tests and said both my testosterone level and my thyroid is out of wack. So she put me on the pill and I am on thyroid pills for it being underactive. My period has been regular and on the same day for the past two months yet my doc still wont say if I have PCOS. I don't have many of the symptoms, I am not overly heavly but I do have hair on my chin alitlle and I have been type one diabetic since I was 12, I am now 26. Does your period come so easily when put on the pill if you suffer from PCOS?Anyways I am just so frusterated and want some help. If anyone can help that would be fabulous. Thanks for the help.
I have PCOS. Every woman is diferent, some of them are a little hairy, or heavy, or they present acne. To know for sure if you have it, you need to go to your OBGYN and have an ustrasound so they can see if you have the little cysts.
Here is some more info about it:
What is PCOS?
Understanding PCOS is easier if one tries to picture what goes on inside our ovaries every month. (For more on monthly cycles, please refer to our articles on menstruation, where you will also find links to information on irregular periods.)
Each month our ovaries begin to ripen a number of follicles. You may be surprised to hear that normal follicles are cysts, in that they are pockets of tissue filled with benign fluid and hormones, mostly estrogen. The amount of immature follicles changes with each cycle but during normal times, one or two follicles grow stronger than the others and produce an egg. When we ovulate, the egg in the dominant follicle pops out and flows into the fallopian tube on its way to the uterus. This event is caused by and in turn triggers a host of hormonal secretions, including estrogen and progesterone, which work together to prepare the body to support a pregnancy if the egg is fertilized or a normal monthly period if it is not.
In PCOS, the egg is not released due to a series of alterations that take place not only in the ovaries, but in the normal hormonal pathways upstream of the ovaries as well. There is no one set scenario for how these alterations take place, and there are lots of theories and various subtypes of PCOS being proposed, but the end result is the same: no ovulation and no resulting pregnancy or period.
When ovaries become polycystic they create a lot of follicles that form like a pearl necklace on the ovaries. No one follicle becomes dominant and ovulation can t occur. For the most part, these multiple ovarian cysts are not dangerous in themselves unlike larger ovarian cysts, which can cause pain and rupture. But they do bring with them a range of uncomfortable side effects. Because a woman with PCOS doesn t ovulate, her natural sequence of hormonal events gets interrupted, her levels of estrogen and androgens (testosterone and DHEA) remain high, and her body reacts with symptoms.
What are the symptoms of PCOS?
The most common symptoms of PCOS are irregular or absent periods, infertility, increased hair growth and unusual weight gain, even with dieting or increased exercise. Women with PCOS will often go for months without a period and then start bleeding heavily for days. This occurs when the uterine lining has gotten too thick and the body must naturally shed it. Because PCOS disrupts ovulation it can be very difficult to become pregnant.
Other signs of PCOS include acne, high blood pressure, obesity, and abnormal facial and body hair growth (due to too much testosterone). One of the less recognizable symptoms of PCOS is depression, which can be misread as a bipolar illness. While depression stems from many factors, we think it is always a good idea to consider PCOS if patients have other symptoms. In some medical practices antidepressants are prescribed which do not alleviate the underlying issues and therefore are not very helpful.
Should I see a doctor if I think I have PCOS?
If any of these symptoms describe what you ve been feeling, it s important to see your healthcare practitioner. If I suspect PCOS in a woman I will do a complete evaluation, including checking for insulin resistance. This work-up includes a physical examination, a fasting lipid profile, a glucose test, hormone levels, and an insulin test (before and two hours after a high-carbohydrate meal). A blood sample is very informative for testing elevated thyroid and prolactin levels. If these tests come up positive, I also look for an altered FSH-to-LH ratio and increased levels of androgens. Occasionally I will suggest a pelvic ultrasound. It can be possible to see the pearl-necklace pattern of cysts on some women s ovaries.
If there is any abdominal pain or pressure around the ovaries, an evaluation is certainly necessary. In most cases a woman will be monitored on a regular basis to make sure her cysts are not at risk for rupture.
If a patient has been trying to get pregnant for more than a year, I usually refer her to a fertility specialist, especially if she is over the age of 35. Ovulation stimulants, like Clomid, can be helpful for many would-be moms who have PCOS. When a non-menopausal woman skips a period for more than four months, pregnancy should be considered. Having regular menstrual periods is important to prevent osteoporosis and maintain the protective effects of estrogen elsewhere in the body.
Occasionally a woman with PCOS will simply not get her period. If she is not pregnant, I advise stimulating a period after four months with the use of micronized progesterone (a bioidentical hormone). Other practitioners will sometimes suggest synthetic progestins such as Provera or Aygestin. This protects the lining of the uterus from becoming too thick or unusual.