Other highly specialized wasps visit flowers, orchids Ophrys . Males are attracted by its appearance and smell similar to those of females of these species and try to mate. Figs have a highly specialized type of pollinating wasps, figs wasps (family Agaonidae ).
Ants also are frequent visitors to the flowers but rarely perform pollination.
Pollination by flies
Certain types of flowers are pollinated by flies, odor and color of rotting flesh and attract carrion flies trying to lay their eggs in them ( Miofilia and Sapromiofilia ). So pollinate without receiving any benefit.
Many melitoflico type flowers are pollinated by flies, especially flies srfidas . If weather conditions are not favorable to bees, flies can carry out most of the pollination of flowers melitoflicas.
Pollination by butterflies and moths (Psycofilia and Falenofilia)
Flowers pollinated by butterflies and moths, Lepidoptera, usually tubular, tailored to their long tongue.The flowers are pollinated by nocturnal moths and moths so often open and producing nectar and perfume at night or at dawn and dusk.
Pollination by beetles
The beetles are not highly specialized for pollination. Their mouthparts are chewing and usually do more harm than good in many cases, however, some flowers from the earliest angiosperm taxa are pollinated by beetles. for example, magnolias and lilies .
Pollination by birds ( ornithophily )
Ornitoflicas flowers are usually large, red, tubular shape and have abundant nectar. All these features are favored by birds. Ornitoflicas flowers are most abundant in tropical rainforests.
Many of the flowers pollinated by hummingbirds and other birds have colors in the range of red, orange or pink although they also suck nectar from flowers of other colors. Unlike many of the flowers pollinated by insects ornitfilas flowers have no nectar guides in the ultraviolet range which makes them almost invisible insects that have that kind of vision. This may reduce the theft of nectar by insects.
Pollinated flowers birds also typically produce nectar with low sugar concentration (about 25% by weight) with predominance of sucrose onfructose and glucose . While insect-pollinated flowers often have higher concentrations of sugar, especially glucose and fructose.
Pollination by bats
Flowers pollinated by bats nocturnal flowers are usually white or cream, large, with abundant nectar. Many cacti are pollinated by bats.
The floral syndromes reflect convergent evolution that limits the types of pollinators and increase the specialization of the plant with respect to pollination. Are a response to selective pressures exerted by pollinators shares. For example, if two unrelated plants are pollinated by nocturnal moths will develop similar traits, traits that are more attractive to pollinators such.
Advantages of specialization
?Pollination efficiency. A plant looking for maximum pollination with minimal investment. Nectar is cheap, but the pollen is expensive. Some are more efficient pollinators than others.
?Constancy of pollinators. It is essential to plant the pollinator return repeatedly to the same kind of flower, otherwise it ends up wasting pollen in flowers of other species
Pollinators fluctuate in abundance regardless of the flowers. A plant needs other types of pollinators if that is common is absent.
Most of the flowers does not correspond to a particular type. These are cases of mixed floral syndromes that do not fit into one type or another. It is necessary to reevaluate the types of pollinators and is best classified by function rather than their taxonomy. Many pollinators of various taxonomic groups can perform a similar function and therefore exert similar selective pressures on the type of flower. Groups of different taxa of pollinators visiting similar flowers and perform a similar function are guilds. We must also take into account the efficiency of each pollinator, because not enough to be a frequent visitor if it is able to carry pollen.